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Crisis of Democracy in the West. The Western Democracies A Culture in Conflict Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Western Democracies. Postwar Issues 3 Democracies appeared powerful after WWI Great Britain, France and the United States The Treaty of Versailles was hoped to encourage others

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crisis of democracy in the west

Crisis of Democracy in the West

The Western Democracies

A Culture in Conflict

Fascism in Italy and Germany

the western democracies
The Western Democracies
  • Postwar Issues
      • 3 Democracies appeared powerful after WWI
          • Great Britain, France and the United States
          • The Treaty of Versailles was hoped to encourage others
      • Underlying Problems
          • Post war Europe face HUGE problems
          • Jobs, Returning Vets and Rebuilding were big issues
          • Many nations owed huge debts and had no money
          • Social unrest and radical ideas were common
          • Germany and other ethnics groups made at outcome of WWI
          • Europe lacked strong leaders
          • An entire generation had been lost
the western democracies1
The Western Democracies
  • Postwar Issues (cont)
      • The Pursuit of Peace
          • Diplomats worked hard to settle issues from WWI
          • By mid-1920’s, borders were set
          • Kellogg-Briand Pact: most nations signed repudiating WAR as an instrument of foreign policy
          • Great powers disarmed (didn’t agree on size)
      • Obstacles to Peace
          • No way to enforce Kellogg-Briand
          • League of Nations was powerless
          • American refused to join League of Nations
          • Ambitious Dictators pushed the limits
the western democracies2
The Western Democracies
  • Recovery and Depression
    • Most European nations returned to peacetime economic production
    • The US emerged as THE economic power
      • A Dangerous Imbalance
          • OVERPRODUCTION: Higher output without markets to sell to caused problems
          • Demand fell, prices fell
          • Consumers benefitted, but producers suffered
          • Workers won higher wages, which raised the price of goods
          • Factories kept producing , despite lower demand for good
      • Crash and Collapse
          • Margin Buying: Brokers called in loans when market began to turn bad
          • Investors sold stock when unable to repay margin
          • The STOCK MARKET CRASH (1929) caused a global collapse
          • US banks stopped loaning money and called in loans to foreign governments
          • Banks failed, millions thrown out of work (DOWNWARD SPIRAL)
      • Global Impact
          • Global economies tied together, all collapsed
          • As Depression lasted, people lost faith in democratic governments to solve the problems devastating most nations
          • Extremists jump on the suffering and offer another way
the western democracies3
The Western Democracies
  • Britain in the Postwar Era
      • Struggle between those supporting socialism and those pushing against communism
      • The Great Depression intensified economic problems
      • Some help from the government provided, millions suffered
      • Revolt in Ireland for home rule – not granted until 1922
          • IRA fought against “North Ireland” still under British control
      • 4 commonwealths granted independence but remain part of Great Britain (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa)
  • France Pursues Security
      • Both a winner and a loser after WWI
      • Relied on “reparation payments” from Germany to rebuild
      • Political instability and the Great Depression brought a struggle for power (lack of strong leadership)
      • Mistrust of Germans caused French to build up defenses along the border between the two countries “The Maginot Line”
the western democracies4
The Western Democracies
  • Prosperity and Depression in the US
      • US stayed out of the League of Nations and isolated itself
      • “RED SCARE” – growing fear of communism caused gov’t in US to act against those who favored it.
      • Anti-immigration acts severely limited immigration
      • 1920’s were either BOOM or BUST
        • MIDDLE CLASS will emerge during BOOM years
        • The STOCK MARKET CRASH caused the Great Depression
      • US Economy goes into tail spin
        • Millions out of work, homeless, hungry
        • Gov’t did little to intervene
      • FDRoosevelt’s “NEW DEAL”
        • The Gov’t took an active role in relieving the problems of the Great Depression
        • Jobs, Businesses, Banks got help
        • Stock Market, businesses were regulated
        • Social Security passed
        • Actions DID NOT end Great Depression but helped many survive it
quick review
QUICK REVIEW
  • Explain what each of the following were:
    • Kellogg Briand Pact
    • Maginot Line
    • New Deal
  • Define the following:
    • Disarmament
    • Overproduction
    • Margin Buying
    • General Strike
  • Answer the questions:
    • What steps did the major powers take to protect the peace?
    • How did the 2 highlighted words above contribute to the Great Depression?
    • How did the Great Depression affect political developments in the US?
fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy
  • Rise of Mussolini
      • A Leader Emerges
          • Post WWI problems allowed a new leader to emerge
          • Mussolini promised a stronger Italy, the people believed
      • Seizing Power
          • “Black Shirts” – enforcers who eliminated opposition
          • Used intimidation and fear to quiet other groups
          • By marching on Rome, Mussolini intimidated King into appointing him Prime Minister
          • Mussolini became the leader without firing a shot
  • Mussolini’s Italy (“Il Duce”)
        • Dictatorship upheld by terror
        • Critics thrown in jail, forced into exile or executed
        • Secret police and propaganda propped up the regime
fascism in italy1
Fascism in Italy
            • Economic Policy
              • Economy brought under state control
              • Production did increase but at the cost of the workers
  • Mussolini’s Italy (cont)
      • Social Policy
        • The individual was unimportant
        • Men were urged to be “ruthless warriors for Italy”
        • Women were sent home and encouraged to “win the battle of motherhood.” Were given medal for 14 or more children
        • Youth groups taught them to obey strict discipline
what is fascism
WHAT IS FASCISM??

AN AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENT (many forms)

*glorify action, violence, discipline and blind loyalty to the state

*believed democracy led to corruption and weakness

* Militarism, Suppression of Opposition, Ultranationalism, &

Aggressive Foreign Policy are markers of FASCISM

  • Compared to Communism
      • Sworn enemies of socialists and communists
      • Instead of good of all people, press for power of the state
      • Supported by business, wealthy, not workers
  • Totalitarian Rule
      • Single party rule * State control of the economy
      • Use of police spies/terror * Strict censorship of media
      • Use of schools to indoctrinate
      • Unquestioning obedience to a single leader
  • Appeal
      • Order restored to country (political and economic)
      • Pride and power of nationalism
quick review1
QUICK REVIEW
  • Who was “Il Duce”? The Black Shirts?
  • What major problems did Italy face after WWI?
  • How did these problems help Mussolini gain power?
  • Describe the goals (economic & social) of Mussolini and the steps he took to achieve each goal.
  • What is FASCISM? What values does it promote?
  • How is Fascism similar to and different from communism?
hitler and the nazi s
Hitler and the Nazi’s
  • The Weimer Republic
      • Struggles of the Republic
          • Post WWI government a republic with elected officials
          • Germany faced many problems, mostly financial
          • Radicals (socialist, communist, fascist) were active
          • With no strong leaders, there was plenty of blame to share
          • Many Germans blamed Jews for their problems
      • Inflation
          • Post war inflation made German economy weak
          • German government printed money to try to fix problem
          • Money becomes worthless, salaries did not keep pace
      • Recovery and Collapse
          • With help from west, government did slow inflation
          • Reparation payments reduced to try to help German econ.
          • Germany turns to charismatic leader, Hitler, to bring Germany back
hitler and the nazi s1
Hitler and the Nazi’s
  • Adolf Hitler (born in Austria)
      • Early Rise
          • Fought in German army, was angry how war ended
          • Joined a small political group and became its leader
          • Used “stormtroopers” to battle in the streets with enemies
      • Mein Kampf
          • Imprisoned after an attempted overthrow of the government
          • Wrote “Mein Kampf” which outlined his plan for Germany
          • “Master Race” “Blaming the Jews”
          • Urged Germans to unite and bring Germany back to power
          • Germany needed living space, Aryans should rule
      • The Road to Power
          • Hitler released from prison, NAZI’s began gaining power
          • The Great Depression enabled NAZI’s to be elected/power
          • Hitler appoints Chancellor, within a year he controlled Germany
hitler and the nazi s2
Hitler and the Nazi’s
  • The Third Reich
      • Hitler will reject the Treaty of Versailles and pressed for a “Third Reich” or third empire
      • TOTALITARIAN STATE: To achieve his goal, Hitler needed total control (gov’t, religion, economy, education)
        • Few worried about the power the government was using, they were just happy Germany was becoming power again
        • The Gestapo (SS) rooted out any and all opposition
      • ECONOMIC POLICY: To grow, people put to work
        • Public works used to rebuild the MILITARY
        • Few objected when government took over most of economy because their standard of living was improving
      • SOCIAL POLICY:
        • Indoctrinated youth (Hitler Youth)
        • Women “rewarded” for having Aryan children
        • Jewish people targeted
purging german culture
Purging German Culture
  • The Arts
      • Modern music and art denounced
      • Only works that glorified Germany allowed (Wagner)
  • Nazism and the Churches
      • Replaced religion with his racial creed
      • Catholic Schools and Churches closed
      • Some clergy spoke up, and were punished
  • Campaign Against the Jews
      • Hitler was a fanatical antisemite
      • Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews
      • Nazis beat and robbed Jews openly
      • KRISTALLNACHT: Night of the Broken Glass
          • World reaction strongly against German action but Hitler didn’t budge
          • In the years that followed, Concentration Camps were used to exterminate over 6 million Jews “FINAL SOLUTION”
steps taken towards the final solution
Steps taken towards the “Final Solution”
  • “Protective Custody” Rules
  • The Enabling Act (1933)
  • Nazi Boycott of Jewish Stores (1933)
  • Closed certain professions from Jewish workers
  • Banning Jewish children from German schools
  • “Retirement” of non-Aryan workers
    • Banned Jewish workers from government
  • Nazi work camps
  • Gestapo/SS
  • Night of a Thousand Knives (1934)
  • Expelled Jewish teachers from Universities and Schools
  • Book Burnings
  • Use of Media – Antisemetic
  • Nuremburg Laws (1935)
  • Jewish names – must add jewish middle name to ID cards
  • Kristallnacht (1939)
slide17

“The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up. . . Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up.

Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up.”

Martin Niemoller, Time Mag.

culture in conflict
Culture in Conflict
  • New Views of the Universe
    • Radioactivity – began tinkering with atomic matter
    • Relativity – Einstein questioned space/time (questioned everything)
    • Probing the Mind –Freud’s subconscious mind drives behavior
  • Modern Art & Architecture
    • Abstract – Picasso
    • Surrealism – Dali
    • Architecture – blended science & technology (glass & steel)
  • A Changing Society
    • Jazz – blend of western harmonies with African rhythms
    • Rebellion – 20’s flapper, women looked outside home
    • Social Classes – WWI had changed the class system
need to knows
Need to Knows
  • Section One
    • Efforts to maintain peace
    • Things that contributed to the Great Depression
  • Section Two
    • Changes in Culture
  • Section Three
    • Mussolini
      • Goals, Actions taken to meet goals
      • Fascism
  • Section Four
    • Hitler
      • Weimar Republic
      • Rise to Power
      • 3rd Reich
      • Purging German Culture
      • Campaign against the Jews
ch 17 essays
Ch 17 Essays
  • Compare and Contrast fascism with communism.
  • Explain the economic conditions in Europe that made it possible for leaders like Mussolini and Hitler and their fascist governments to rise to power.
  • Hitler and Mussolini both used ruthless campaigns against their opposition. Why do you think dictators need to find a scapegoat for their nation’s problems?
  • EXTRA CREDIT:
    • Cover Book +5
    • Answer the following:
    • Name 3 specific examples of methods used by the Nazi’s to deprive Jewish Germans’ rights. Why did the Jewish people and German people accept these?