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The Challenge of Democracy in Africa

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  1. The Challenge of Democracy in Africa Chapter 19, Section 2

  2. Colonization • Colonization or imperialism began in the 1400s and again in 1800s • Starting in 1800s, Africa was colonized by many European countries • These European countries included: Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal

  3. Decolonization • After World War II in 1945, many nations wanted independence and put “pressure” on colonial powers from Europe, America, and Japan to leave their country • “Pressure” = had wars for independence or practiced nonviolent civil disobedience • Colonized nations were located in Latin America, Asia, and Europe • Decolonization: freeing a nation that has been colonized by a colonial power (Europe, America, or Japan) • The decolonization of Africa followed WWII

  4. Negative impact of Colonial Rule • After decolonization, many nations, including Africa, experienced problems or negative impact caused by colonization • The reason for Africa’s difficulties in building an independent nation has been the negative impact of colonial rule or colonization

  5. Negative impact of Colonial Rule (cont.) • Negative impact included European colonialists: • Not educating the Africans • Establishing colonial boundaries, but ignoring existing ethnic and cultural divisions • CLAN WARFARE- rival clans or tribes fight for control causing gov’t instability • Assimilating the Africans • Taking away their culture, language, and nation identities • Building plantations and mines for their benefit and not the Africans

  6. Clan Warfare Example: RWANDA • Two groups- the Hutu (majority) conquered people w/different ethnicities & Tutsi (minority) rulers • 1885- Root cause of rivalry- Dutch place Tutsi in charge of colony (because their of lighter skin) • 1962- Hutu gained power. Kill 20K Tutsi & 200K became refugees

  7. RPF- Rwanda Patriotic Front formed ’85 from Tutsi refugees • 1990- RPF invaded Rwanda starting civil war • Rwanda gov’t under Hutu control felt threatened. Ethnic tension • 1993- civil war ends • 1994- Hutu prepare & plan the killing of Tutsis

  8. April 1994- Rwandan president’s plane shot down • Tutsis blamed • April 6-mid July- 500K Tutsi & 1000s Hutu sympathizers killed (est. 800K to 1 Million dead) • Many killed by machete • RPF attack Hutu gov’t & won

  9. Nation Building in Africa • Nation building: building or structuring of state or national identity • Nation building that occurred in African states following their independence from Europe was difficult BECAUSE individual states had to struggle with economic problems, cultural differences, and the movement toward political stability

  10. Nation Building Example: Nigeria • After the Nigerian government ended a war with the Biafra, the country laid down their guns and went back to the business of living • This included growing a healthy state or nation building

  11. Military Rule in Africa • Political stability was especially difficult • Many African nations were established as some form of republic under presidential rule HOWEVER actual control of many of these countries was exercised by the MILITARY RULE

  12. African Nations = Developing Nations • Due to economic problems or hardship, many countries in Africa are called developing countries • Developing country: a farming nation with little technology

  13. AIDS: An African Epidemic Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) poses a challenge to many contemporary countries in Africa Originated in Africa around 1940 Became an issue in 1980s A mutated form of SIV, a disease found in chimps Different theories of its origin- Hunters, Oral Polio Vaccine, Colonialism, Conspiracy AIDS epidemic- 2005 2 million deaths in Africa. 2007 88% of Sub-Saharan African population HIV+

  14. South Africa & the National Party • The National Party or Nats ruled over Africa since 1914 • The Nats were all white men • When Africa was decolonized by the British, the Nats and other white people who ruled over South Africa • White Africans- 25% of the population & had the best land • Black Africans- 75% of the population & have 13% of the land

  15. South Africa & Apartheid • Apartheid was developed after WWII by the National Party • Apartheid: a racially divisive policy; complete separation of races • Very similar to the United States idea of segregation • Whites use and have the best facilities while blacks are forced to use other worse facilities • Blacks treated worse than whites

  16. Other Nations look Down on Apartheid • Many nations restricted trade with South Africa because of apartheid • South Africa was not allowed to be in Olympics since 1960s

  17. Leaders & Groups fight to end Apartheid • Desmond Tutu- led non-violent economic campaign to fight apartheid • African National Congress (ANC) was formed to fight for black Africans’ rights in South Africa • Government tried to shut down ANC and threw the ANC leader, Nelson Mandela, in jail • Mandela would stay in jail for 27 years

  18. Desmond Tutu

  19. F.W. de Klerk brings Change • South Africa began moving toward significant political reform and nation building under president F.W. de Klerk • As his first step as newly elected president, Klerk released Mandela from jail • De Klerk hoped to end apartheid in his country with Mandela’s help

  20. F.W. de Klerk

  21. Mandela- South Africa’s 1st Elected President • 1994- 1st elections held in which black South Africans could vote. Mandela elected president. • 1996- a new, more democratic constitution passed • Gave rights to all citizens • Forbids discrimination • Gave right to travel, housing, education & health care to blacks and whites

  22. Nelson Mandela