Global Environmental Issues:A Case Study on Global Warming OOOPS Presented by: Amr S Algarhi Azza A Shafei Econ 506 17th May 2005
Global Environmental Problems • Global warming • Acid rain • Ozone layer depletion • Biodiversity loss • Infectious disease
Global Warming …refers to an increase in average global temperature, also called: • Climate Change • Greenhouse Effect
Solar radiation some is reflected by the earth and the atmosphere some passes through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the earth, warming it Infrared radiation Some passes through the atmosphere Some is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gas modules Greenhouse Effect
Causes of Global Warming GHG - due to Natural and Human Economic Activities
Human activities have changed the composition of the atmosphere since the pre- industrial era
Characteristics of GHG • Atmospheric life time. • Global warming potential. • Atmospheric concentration.
Greenhouse Gases • Concentration vs. Emissions. • Forecasts about emissions are very sensitive.
Impacts of Global Warming- physical • Shrinking glaciers & thawing permafrost • Later freezing and earlier break up of river and lake ice • Sea level rise • Higher incidence of floods and droughts in some regions
Impacts of Global Warming- biological • Longer growing seasons • Poleward and altitude shifts of plants and animal ranges • Decline of some plant and animal population ( Drive 15 - 37% of living species toward extinction by the middle of the century) • Early tree flowering, emergence of insects and birds eggs laying • Damage to natural systems Many of these impacts are irreversible
Impacts of Global Warming- human system Systems at risk include: • water resources • Agriculture and forestry • Coastal zones and marine systems • Decreasing water availability in regions where water is already scarce • Human health and risk of disease
Game theory A 2-player pollution abatement game
Toronto Conference (1988) • Carbon dioxide targets. • Carbon dioxide emissions. • GHG control (quantitative incentives rather than price incentives).
Rio de Janeiro Conference (1992) • Plans for controlling emissions. • No commitments on: A particular emissions reduction. A timetable for any such reduction.
Kyoto Protocol (1997) • Conditions to be in force. • Industrialized nations. • Developing countries.
Kyoto Protocol’sFlexible Mechanisms • Emissions Trading or “HOT AIR TRADING” • Joint Implementation (JI) • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
water resources coastal zones Global Warming will affect Egypt Egypt is potentially one of the countries most at risk from the effects of climate change.
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement • Increase the capacity of ‘pools’ that absorb carbon dioxide and other GHG from the atmosphere. • Decrease the rate of emissions of GHG (reducing GHG inflows).
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement • stop using burning fuels and changes in fuel mix (from fossil to renewable energy) • use the new technologies that are now available, like better filters.
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement • Stabilizing population growth worldwide. • power stations should not be permitted to discharge warm cooling waters into rivers and oceans.
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement • Financial and technological transfers from developed to developing nations. • helping low-income nations develop cleanly.
Recommendation for Global Warming Abatement • learn and use good ideas and solutions from other countries that help us eliminate global warming. For example, a country that is fighting global warming and producing less polluting fuels is Brazil. Instead of gasoline Brazilians use alcohol, which is made from sugar cane and cassava. The exhaust fumes from this alcohol fuel are almost clean enough to breathe.