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Civil war (part II) PowerPoint Presentation
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Civil war (part II)

Civil war (part II)

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Civil war (part II)

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  1. Civil war (part II) Caesar vs Pompey

  2. Anti-Caesar • Caesar had granted citizenship to Gauls • Marcellus beat a Gallic man and denied trial • Marcellus tried to shorten Caesar’s command • His cousin decreed that Caesar and Pompy should give a legion to defend Syria • Pompey gave the legion he sent to Caesar • Caesar gave money to both legions • Soldiers never left Italy

  3. and a hard place • Pompey entrusted with defense of Republic • Pompey demands Senate be firm in opposing Caesar or he will go to Spain • Without consulship/imperium, Caesar would be open to prosecution. • Pompey wants power and popularity • Pompey refuses to meet with Caesar • Pompey is confidant he could defeat Caesar Wherever I should stamp my foot, there will rise forces of infantry and calvary!

  4. The Die is Cast • Antony is elected Tribune • He is run out of Rome by consuls • When his last peace proposal is denied in 49, Caesar says “IactaAleaEst” then crosses the Rubicon with army (act of Treason) • Caesar marches quickly • Pompey only has the 2 legions that fought with (and paid by) Caesar. Other help away • Pompey and Senators flee to Greece

  5. Huntin’ time • Caesar names himself dictator to name himself consul in 48 • After securing Rome, he heads to Spain • He defeats Pompey’s army but grants the soldiers clemency • Many defect to his side • Caesar heads for Greece to get Pompey • Caesar and Pompey meet in Thessaly on the plains of Pharsalus (48 BC)

  6. The Final Countdown • Both sides are fighting for everything • At first, Pompey’s cavalry pushes Caesar’s troops back • Caesar ordered a reserve line to attack the cavalry directly • The Cavalry retreated, leaving archers defenseless • Pompey flees battlefield (heads to Egypt) • Caesar mourned the loss of Roman life

  7. Caesar in Egypt • Pompey flees to Egypt • Ptolemy’s advisors have him killed • Head and ring brought to Caesar • Caesar angry, they try to kill him too • Cleopatra visits him in a rug • He has Ptolemy killed • Restores Cleopatra to the throne • She bears him a son, Caeserion

  8. Mopping up • Pharnaces: son of Mithradates • Caesar defeats him at Zela in 47 BC • VENI VIDI VICI • He heads back to Rome, settles things • He travels to Africa, more Pompeians • Cato kills himself in Utica • Allows the people to surrender (saves lives) • 45 BC, battle of Munda in Spain, last of the Pompeians

  9. Mr. Clemency • Forgiveness for all! • Temple built to ClementiaeCaesaris • Anyone who does not want it is exiled • Named Dictator for 10 years • Reduces welfare (cuts state debt) • Sends workers to new colonies • Grants Citizenship to Gauls • Gets land for his soldiers • Revises the calendar (Lunar to solar)

  10. Death of a Titan • In 44 he is named Dictator for life • Incites anger for Munda triumph (Romans), condescending attitude, Lupercalia incident • Allegedly said Republic was only a name • Senators form a plot to assassinate Caesar • They get Marcus Junius Brutus on board • His family drove out the monarchy • On 3/15/44, Caesar is killed at a Senate meeting. Dies in front of bust of Pompey