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Globalization and Its Discontents. IR Theories on the EU. Liberalism Institutions Domestic politics and intergovernmental bargains Functionalism – functional spillover Constructivism Norms of democratic community Realism?. Globalization.

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ir theories on the eu
IR Theories on the EU
  • Liberalism
    • Institutions
    • Domestic politics and intergovernmental bargains
    • Functionalism – functional spillover
  • Constructivism
    • Norms of democratic community
  • Realism?
globalization
Globalization
  • Globalization: Global networks of interdependence (Nye 2004)
  • Interdependence: mutual dependence of actors across different parts of the international system (Keohane and Nye 1977)
  • “…globalization is about connections between different region of the world-from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the environmental-and the ways in which they change and increase over time….”(Held et al. 1999)
elements of globalization
Elements of Globalization
  • Trade
    • Exports: $66bn (1960) -$7,100bn (2002)
  • International finance
    • FDI: $68bn (1960) $7,100(2002)
  • Multinational corporations
    • 3,500 (1960) to 65,200 (2001)
  • Regional integration
elements of globalization5
Elements of Globalization
  • Cultural globalization
  • Disease
  • Environmental interdependence
  • Population and migration
  • Transnational trafficking networks
  • Transnational terrorism
sources of globalization
Sources of Globalization
  • Technology
  • Triumph of liberalism
    • Francis Fukuyama: The End of History?
    • Washington Consensus
  • Institutions
    • WTO
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • World Bank
benefits of globalization
Benefits of Globalization
  • Access to information
  • Access to goods
  • Access to technology
  • Access to capital
the risks of globalization
The Risks of Globalization
  • States lose control
  • Heightened vulnerability
  • Benefits distributed asymmetrically
  • Economic objectives trump social, cultural, environmental objectives
case from the asian miracle to the asian financial crisis
Case: From the Asian Miracle to the Asian Financial Crisis
  • The miracle:
    • South Korea: 7%-8%average growth 1970s-1990s;
    • Thailand: 7%-8.5% growth rate 1960-1980s
  • 1990s: rapid financial market liberalization
  • 1997 Financial Crisis
    • Thailand: fear of currency devaluation->sell baht->currency devaluates->capital flight; financial instability;
    • Korea: rumor that economy in trouble/bank will not renew loans -> banks unwilling to renew loans ->economic trouble due to high indebtedness
    • Korea: GDP -7%; Thailand: GDP -11%
case intellectual property rights biopiracy
Case: Intellectual Property Rights(Biopiracy)
  • Mexican yellow bean
    • Larry Proctor (Colorado) patent on “Enola” bean, originally from Sonora (Mexico)
  • Basmati rice
    • RiceTec Inc (Texas)-Texmati Rice patent
the global banana
The global banana
  • Distribution of a dollar of retail revenue:
    • Producer income $0.05
    • Export costs $0.04
    • Transport $0.11
    • Import license $0.09
    • Ripening process $0.05
    • Taxes $0.15
    • Distribution/retail $0.34
    • Profit $0.17

Source: Lipschutz,2004, p. 2

solutions solutions the role of institutions
Solutions, Solutions….The Role of Institutions
  • Keynesian welfare politics?
  • Domestic institution?
  • Gradual liberalization, mitigated by government policies?
  • Strengthen international institutions?
  • Tackle poverty?