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Energy Efficiency Design Index – An Update. Dr Zabi Bazari Ship Energy Services Manager Lloyd’s Register, London, UK. [email protected] RINA Lecture, 2 February 2012, London, UK. Content. Introduction EEDI formula and Attained EEDI Reference lines and Required EEDI EEDI verification

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Energy efficiency design index an update

Energy Efficiency Design Index – An Update

Dr Zabi Bazari

Ship Energy Services Manager

Lloyd’s Register, London, UK.

[email protected]

RINA Lecture, 2 February 2012, London, UK.


  • Introduction

  • EEDI formula and Attained EEDI

  • Reference lines and Required EEDI

  • EEDI verification

  • IMO workplan and outcome of January 2012 meeting

  • Likely impacts

  • Conclusions

Imo initiatives for ghg emissions control
IMO initiatives for GHG emissions control


Owners / Charterers

Ship owner / operator

IMO Initiatives





  • Regulatory status:

    • EEDI / SEEMP: Mandatory from 1st January 2013

    • EEOI: Voluntary

    • MBMs: Early discussions

New chapter 4 of marpol annex vi
New Chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI

IMO MEPC 62 in July 2011 agreed to a new Chapter 4 in MARPOL Annex VI entitled “Regulations on Energy Efficiency of Ships”.

This includes addition of new Regulations 19 to 23

Regulation 19 is on Application domain of Chapter 4

Regulations 20 is on “Attained EEDI”

Regulations 21 is on “Required EEDI”

Regulation 22 is on SEEMP

Regulation 23 is on “Technical co-operation and technology transfer”

There are quite a number of Guidelines in support of the above regulations.

Attained eedi calculation formula mepc circ 681
Attained EEDI: Calculation formula (MEPC Circ.681)

Main Engine

Aux Engine (s)

Innovative Energy Eff. Power Gen. Technologies

Innovative Energy Eff. Prop. Technologies




Boilers are excluded from EEDI!

Eedi parameters
EEDI parameters

Ice class factor

Shaft Motor

Waste Heat

Energy Saving



Main power:


Wave factor

Capacity factor

Carbon factor

Auxiliary power:

PME >=10000KW:


PME < 10000KW:



DWT: Bulk carriers,Containers,


GTR:Passenger Ship

Attained Speed


Reference lines
Reference lines

Reference lines are ship specific.

They are part of Regulation 22 (in equation form).

All new ship types, for inclusion in regulation, require a new reference line.

Linear range

Reference Line

Cut Off

Required EEDI

  • Required EEDI: The regulatory limit for EEDI.

  • Required EEDI = (1 – X/100)*Reference Value

  • Where:

  • X is the Reduction Rate.

  • Reference Value is calculated fromReference Line.

Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI

Implementation stages and reduction rates

  • EEDI implementation phases are:

    • Phase 0 2013 – 2014

    • Phase 1 2015 – 2019

    • Phase 2 2020 – 2024

    • Phase 3 2025 – ……

  • Reduction rate for the above phases are as in diagram.

Ship types subject of current eedi regulations
Ship types subject of current EEDI regulations

* excluding ships with diesel-electric, turbine or hybrid propulsion

EEDI Verification process





Basic Design , Tank Test*,

EEDI Calculation

Development of EEDI Technical File

Application for EEDI


Submission of EEDI Technical File


- EEDI Technical File

- additional information

Issuance of

Statement of Compliance

Submission of additional information

Final Verification

Start of ship construction

Application for EEDI



- sea trial condition

- ship speed

- revised EEDI Technical File

Issuance of

IEEC (International Energy efficiency Certificate)

Sea Trial

Modification and Resubmission of EEDI Technical File

Delivery of ship

* To be conducted by a test organisation or a shipbuilder itself.

Major aspects of verification
Major aspects of verification

Verification of speed-power curve for Vref:

Tank test observation

Speed trial observation

Scaling method from “trial conditions” to “EEDI conditions”

Correction for environmental conditions.

Verification of “energy saving technologies”

Availability factors (feff)

Power levels

Verification of various correction factors:

Ice-class (fj)

Weather factor (fw)

Design capacity factor (fi)

Cubic capacity factor (fc)

Some other major verification challenges
Some other major verification challenges

  • Exact model?

  • Numerical tools for calculation, scaling, pre-verification, etc.?

  • Shipyards’ and tank test facilities’ proprietary data?

  • Uncertainly levels and if there is a need for formal uncertainty analysis?

  • How to ensure consistency amongst various organisations:

    • ROs

    • Shipyards

    • Tank test organisations

List of the eedi related guidelines
List of the EEDI-related Guidelines

Guideline for calculation of EEDI

Guidelines for survey and verification of EEDI

Guidelines for minimum power of ship for safe operation.

Guidelines for validation of ship electric power table (EPT).

Guidelines for verification of innovative technologies

Eedi reduction methods
EEDI reduction methods

MEPC60/4/35 Japan, Norway, US


Average EEDI of current ships

(no effort for efficiency improvement)

(1) DWT enlargement


Reduction rate

(2) Speed reduction

(3) Application of new technology

A: efficiency improvement

Efficiency improvement by design change


  • Capacity (deadweight) increase

  • Advanced technologies:

    • Existing/proven technologies

    • Emerging technologies

    • Renewable energy technologies

  • Alternative fuels:

    • LNG

  • Speed reduction

Changes to eedi formula
Changes to EEDI formula

  • Cubic Capacity Factors for Chemical Tankers (fc):

    • Based on the ratio of summer deadweight to volumetric capacity (R)

    • To be calculated according to the formula fc = R^(-0.7) – 0.014, where fc = 1 when R = 0.98

  • Cubic Capacity Factor for LNG (fc)

    • To be calculated from Fc = R^(-0.56)

  • Design Capacity Factor for Voluntary Structural Enhancement (fiVSE).

  • Design Capacity Correction Factor for ships built to Common Structural Rules (fiCSR).

New guidelines non conventional ships etc
New guidelines, non-conventional ships, etc

  • New guidelines for verification of innovative technologies:

    • Japan presented draft guidelines

    • Dealing with wind, solar, heat recovery, etc.

    • For each of the above technologies, there will be guidelines for calculation and verification.

  • EEDI for Non-Conventional Ships

    • Reference line for cruise ships

    • Reference line for RoRo ships

    • Reference line for RoPax ships

  • Shaft generator:

    • Incorporation of a new formulation for shaft generator.

    • Also, cases where propulsion shaft power is limited and can be verified, there will be no need to use main engine power.

Likely impacts
Likely impacts

More energy efficient ships and ship technologies

Slower speed ships

More use of alternative fuels

More expensive ships/marine transport (excluding fuel)

More optimised and complex designs with likely impacts on:



Likely modal shift of freight transport to land and air

EEDI will become commercially sensitive if used for:

Existing ships

Fuel efficiency-based chartering

Reward-based marine MBMs or financial incentives

Concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

The EEDI regulations are now in place and will come into force from 1st January 2013.

A number of guidelines are under development and will be finalised in 2012 in support of the above.

Verification of EEDI pauses a number of major issues.

There are a number of solutions to reduce EEDI including alternative fuels, alternative technologies and reduced ship speed.

The EEDI impacts on shipping economics, safety and transportation competitiveness are still being investigated.

Overall, it is anticipated that the EEDI will have a big impact on future of shipping industry.