Normal Condition. Wind Flow Pattern. Warm. SE trade winds. Cold. MECHANISM. thermocline. Ocean Profile. upwelling. cool air. cool air. El Niño Condition. Wind Flow Pattern. SE trade winds. Warm. Cold. MECHANISM. thermocline. upwelling. Ocean Profile. Walker Circulation.
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Red circles indicate drought during El Niño.PRECIPITATION
To the North, Montana's
Climate Patterns are Also Affected
Drought in East Africa
Also Due to La Niña
In Indonesia, late-arriving rains delayed the normal October/November rice planting and caused a reduction in rice production potential.
In Malaysia, rainfall has been below normal but adequate for rice production.
In Thailand, below normal rainfall has lowered water reserves for the second rice crop.
In the Philippines, localized dryness has reduced corn and rice yields.Impact
In Zimbabwe, a hot, dry December
In Tanzania and Kenya, drought earlier in the crop year
In India past El Niño brought dry weather across northwest India
In the Central America the major El Niño impact is nearly over as their rainy season has ended.Impact
drought damage to rice and corn cost more than P700 million
450,000 hectares of land were affected
among the severely hit provinces were Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, Northern Visayas and Western Mindanao
drought damage set back the agricultural sector by P4.1 billion
478,000 metric tons of corn were destroyed
among the worst hit were South Cotabato, Isabela, Bukidnon, Maguindanao, North Cotabato and Cagayan
dry spell between June1997-1998; effects continued to be felt through September 1998
El Niño struck as the country was enjoying a continuous four-year growth
damage to agriculture amounted to P8.46 billion
16 regions were affectedSevere droughts in the Philippines
- setting up disaster assistance for farmers
- issuing drought insurance
- making changes to tax and food import policies
- building up strategic food stocks
- encouraging shifts in planting patterns
planting of early maturing varieties of crops.
identification and mapping of areas that are prone to flood and vulnerable to erosion and landslides.
construction of 990 units of small farm reservoirs (SFRs) for harvesting rainwater and surface runoffMITIGATION
There should be an adequate assessments about and monitoring of hazards, disasters and vulnerabilities, so that the need for prevention is accurately identified and disasters defined.
There is need for a clear and comprehensive national disaster policy, which will address the total disaster management spectrum, including El Niño and La Niña considerations of all aspects of preparedness. Within this policy, there must be a readiness on the part of the government to institutionalize preventive measures.
TheGovernment undertake the following initiatives:
To formulate a comprehensive plan for disaster management, disaster policy and disaster actions at the earliest possible time.
To design an appropriate and enforceable legal mechanism for dealing with all types of natural disaster
To develop appropriate technology and ensure the collection of relevant data on disaster through the use of satellites and the introduction of a regular system of delivering information to the public through television, radio and other mass media.Conclusions & Recommendations