NUCLEAR ENERGY. Welcome to my nuclear energy power point presentation. Its purpose is to give you a flavour of what nuclear energy is all about. I hope you find it informative and enjoyable. Charles Hobson BSc(hons), BA. NUCLEAR ENERGY.
Welcome to my nuclear energy power point presentation. Its purpose is to give you a flavour of what nuclear energy is all about. I hope you find it informative and enjoyable.
Charles Hobson BSc(hons), BA
Nuclear energy can be derived from three different processes:
Processes 1 & 2 yield huge amounts of energy (heat) Fission is chain reacting; Fusion is not.
Process 3 yields useful heat from radioactive decay
Fission fuel: Uranium isotope U-235.
Fusion fuel: Hydrogen isotopes - Deuterium and Tritium
Combined mass of Sr 90 & Cs 143 less than U 235
Loss of mass is energy
E = mc2
Fusion involves two hydrogen isotopes fusing together at extremely high temperature.
The result is Helium, protons and huge amounts of energy.
Red balls Neutrons; Yellow Protons
The resulting Helium will have less mass than the combined masses of the hydrogen isotopes: Deuterium and Tritium.
The lost mass is the huge amount of released energy (heat) E = mc2
2035: Estimated date for 1st Nuclear Fusion Power Plant
Containment bldg is a 1.0m thick re-enforced concrete structure
Reactor vessel 4mx3m 300 tons 9” thick tough carbon steel
Reactor produces 3500MW heat
Turbine generators produce ~ 1000MW of electrical power
The condenser may receive and discharge its cooling water from either nearby large bodies of water or large cooling towers. (lower right side of above animated picture)
Uranium is a silvery white metalic element
Enrichment (Increase % of U-235) is a complicated process. There is no chemical difference between Uranium isotopes
U-235 and U-238 can only be distinguished by their mass difference (~1.3%) A chemical process is first used to convert the Uranium to Uranium Hexa fluoride (UF6), which has the property of being a solid at room temperature and a gas above ~ 640C
A heated Gas centrifuge separates out the U-235.
All 31 Countries not shown
UK 2009 Electricity consumption 5% lower than in 2008
Nuclear power 25% greater than 2008
UK gas imports: 32% 2007, 50% 2009, est. 75% 2015
Combined capacity ~ 9GW
7 Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR)
1 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Sizewell B
Built and commissioned between 1987 and 1995
Built on time to budget £2,030 million
Connected & synchronised to National Grid 14 February 1995
Pressurized Water Reactor (Only one in UK)
Primary water loop heated by reactor to 3200C 155 BAR (2240psi)
Heat exchanger to secondary loop 62 BAR steam (92psi)
High pressure steam drives turbine which turns generator
Third loop condenses steam out of turbine using sea water
Generators (2) produce 1200MW of power (2 million homes)
Station runs continuously 18 month cycle
1 month shut down for standard maintenance and refuelling
There are over 200 nuclear powered submarines and surface ships worldwide
8 Nuclear Subs were lost, 2 US, 4 Soviet and 2 Russian
USS Thresher 1963 and USS Scorpion 1968.
Reactors very compact, smaller than normal Nuclear Power Stations.
Requires highly enriched Uranium (20%)
Fuel lasts for years.
Reactors heat water for steam turbines
Turbine propels vessels. * China and France propel ships with electric motors, (turbines drive electric generators
Outer solar system and deep space environment very hostile
Space probe equipment needs to be kept warm and electrically powered
Sunlight brightness decreases at the inverse square of distance from the Sun.
Nuclear power sources flown in space
a. Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) b. Nuclear Reactors (NRs)
a. US flew 47 RTGs and 1 NR b. USSR flew 35 NRs and 2 RTGs)
SNAP (System for Nuclear Auxiliary Power)
Cutaway view 12cm dia. 14cm high Wt = 2.1kg
4.8” x 5.6”
Lincoln Experimental Satellites LES-8/9 Launched 1976. To provide pwr for 5 yr
Two 40kg RTGs on each LES
Designed for 125We 26V (Actual 154We)
2004 still providing electrical power.
Contributed to success of subsequent Voyager one and two missions
Voyager 1 &2 launch Dates Sept. 1977 and Aug.1977
Mission to explore all giant planets and their moons
Carry on into outer space.
Voyager 1 status: 17.4 billion km from sun. 2011-02-04
Voyager 2 status: 14.2 billion km from sun. 2011-02-04
33 years after launch both space craft still sending data
1970- Chairman of US AEC predicted Fusion Power Plants would be on line by 1995
1976- US EDRC produced plan to achieve this
1980- President Carter signed into law the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act (October 1980) that articulated that goal and mandated the funding to achieve it. We were on our way!
$600 million per year, was authorize, and a clear goal of a working model Fusion Power Plant by 1990.
1981- Carter was not re-elected. Funding was slashed to $150 million per year by new administration, which essentially scuttled the US program for Fusion Energy.
Inside 100 tonne vacuum vessel
Toroid weight 384 tonnes
Wt. of iron core 2800 tonnes
Positive ions (stripped deuterium and tritium atoms) injected
Lorenz forces cause ion plasma to circulate inside toroid
Plasma current (I2R) heats plasma. Mag. Fields compress ions
Neutrons fly off in straight line hits toroid walls
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A NIF target contains a polished capsule about two millimeters in diameter, filled with cryogenic (super-cooled) hydrogen fuel.
A metallic case called a hohlraum holds the fuel capsule for NIF experiments. Target handling systems precisely position the target and freeze it to cryogenic temperatures (18 kelvins, or -427 degrees
The hohlraum is a pencil-eraser-sized cylinder that holds the target, a spherical capsule no larger than a peppercorn.
On March 10, 2009, at 3:15 a.m., a 192-beam laser shot delivered 1.1 million joules of ultraviolet light to the center of the target chamber - the first time any fusion laser has broken the megajoule barrier (a megajoule is the energy consumed by 10,000 100-watt light bulbs in one second).
This view from the bottom of the chamber shows the target positioner being inserted. Pulses from NIF's high-powered lasers race toward the Target Bay at the speed of light. They arrive at the center of the target chamber within a few trillionths of a second of each other, aligned to the accuracy of the diameter of a human hair.
Thank you for taking time to view this presentation. I would be most grateful for your comments and suggestions.