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Writing and Argumentation in Secondary Science: Day 1 Welcome !. AT LAST!!! February 6, 2014. “Literacy is the litmus paper of thought…the very center of schooling.” ~Ted Sizer. In the context of teaching science, what does this quote mean to you?.

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writing and argumentation in secondary science day 1 welcome
Writing and Argumentation in Secondary Science: Day 1Welcome!

AT LAST!!!

February 6, 2014

literacy is the litmus paper of thought the very center of schooling ted sizer
“Literacy is the litmus paper of thought…the very center of schooling.” ~Ted Sizer

In the context of teaching science, what does this quote mean to you?

argument in science
Argument in Science

In science, an argument is used…

“to promote as much understanding of a situation as possible and to persuade colleagues of the validity of a specific idea….[it] is ideally about sharing, processing, and learning about ideas” (NRC 2008, p 89)

exploring argument in the classroom
Exploring Argument in the Classroom
  • Title, Author
  • Definition of Scientific Argument
  • What does argument look like in the classroom? (General Structure)
  • Specific classroom example
  • Best quote from the article
  • Recommendation: Read this article! It’s awesome because… (or opposite)
slide8

Orchestra students are musicians; students on the basketball team are athletes; what opportunities do our science students have to be scientists?

architecture of the ngss performance expectations
Architecture of the NGSS: Performance Expectations
  • Performance Expectations:
  • These describe what a student should be able to do at the end of a unit
  • They are not meant to be lesson sequences or required activities
architecture of the ngss
Architecture of the NGSS

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Science and Engineering Practices

Crosscutting Concepts

architecture of the ngss connections
Architecture of the NGSS: Connections
  • Connections to:
  • Other content/grade-bands within the NGSS
  • Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics
ngss resources
NGSS Resources

http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards

our shift in thinking
Our shift in thinking…

From thinking that one scientific method fits all

To thinking about how to engage our students in the practices of scientists

Asking questions and defining problems

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating and communicating

information

our shift in thinking1
Our shift in thinking…

From thinking that “hands-on” science is ESSENTIAL

To thinking that engaging students EVERY DAY in scientific practices and thinking is POWERFUL

shifting our practice
Shifting our practice…

Next Generation Science Standards

Science & Engineering Practices

Asking questions and defining problems

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

From…

How am I going to teach this?

To…

How are students going to learn about this?

writing and argumentation
Writing and Argumentation

Next Generation Science Standards

Science & Engineering Practices

Asking questions and defining problems

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

Which Science and Engineering Practices (SEP) best support writing and argumentation?

writing and argumentation1
Writing and Argumentation

According to the SEP, what are the hallmarks of a high quality argument at your grade level?

getting started
Getting Started
  • Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER)
    • CLAIM: What do you know?
    • EVIDENCE:How do you know that?
    • REASONING: Why does your evidence support your claim?
claim evidence reasoning cer
Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER)
  • What grade level?
  • Rewrite the student response so it reflects a higher grade band.
  • How might the task be changed to produce a higher level of student work?
slide26

When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?)

~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

slide27

When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?)

~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

experimentation
Experimentation

Then spend the rest of the year learning content through text resources or telling.

Separate Unit on the Scientific Method

Conventional

experimentation1
Experimentation

?

Students then observe the cloud in a jar that confirms what they already “know.”

Students read the text to learn vocabulary and background information about clouds.

Conventional

experimentation2
Experimentation

?

Students ask questions about cloud formation and do some investigating on their own.

Students search for answers to their questions as they read the text.

Shifts in Practice for NGSS

5e learning cycle
5E Learning Cycle

5E Model is based from the SCIS Model of Instruction by researchers Atkins and Karplus in 1967.

5E Model was originally proposed by BSCS (Biological Science Curriculum Study) in the late1980’s.

5e learning cycle1
5E Learning Cycle
  • Engage
  • Explore
  • Explain
  • Elaborate
  • Evaluate

http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model

how does argument fit into the 5e learning cycle
How does argument fit into the 5E learning cycle?
  • Engage
  • Explore
  • Explain
  • Elaborate
  • Evaluate

http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model

engage
Engage

Draw a diagram that shows how both people can see the light.

What ideas or questions do you have about how light travels?

explore
Explore

What can you find out about the way light travels?

What if you have 2 light sources?

explore1
Explore

How is this the same? Different?

What image will you see?

explore2
Explore

What can you find out now?

explore3
Explore

How is this the same? Different?

What will you see on the screen?

explain
Explain

Imagine that you have a pair of Magic Science Glasses. When you look at light with your Magic Science Glasses, you see the particles that make up light.

Put on your Magic Glasses and “look” at the light particles that we’ve been experimenting with. Use what you see about how these particles are behaving and what they look like to explain all the patterns we noticed in our experiments. Use a whiteboard to create a representation that answers the focus question:

How does light travel?

  • How does light travel?
  • Light particles…
    • …travel in straight lines
    • …travel in all directions
    • …are invisibly small
    • …travel at high speed
jeremy s vacation
Jeremy’s Vacation

Using the data provided, create a representation that will help you show which city Jeremy should visit and at what time of year (spring, fall, winter, or summer).

You may represent your data in any way you choose.

You may choose to represent all or only some of the data, as long as you can use your representation to justify your recommendations for Jeremy’s vacation (where to go and when to go there).

From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

comparing 2 tasks
Comparing 2 Tasks

Task A

Task B

Using the data provided, create a representation that will help you show which city Jeremy should visit and at what time of year (spring, fall, winter, or summer).

Create a bar graph that shows the average monthly high and low temperatures in each city. Identify where and when Jeremy should go on vacation.

From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

tasks that support argumentation
Tasks that support argumentation
  • High cognitive demand
  • Students engage in multiple ways that are productive
  • Students produce artifacts

Student artifacts

Science concept

Argumentation!

Task

types of tasks
Types of tasks
  • Experimentation Tasks
  • Data Representation, Analysis, and Interpretation Tasks
  • Explanation Tasks

From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

features of low and high cognitive demand tasks
Features of Low and High Cognitive Demand Tasks
  • What do you notice?
  • What do you wonder?

From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

low or high cognitive demand
Low or High Cognitive Demand?

How might you increase the cognitive demand of this task?

From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

before we meet again
Before we meet again…
  • Develop alearning cycles or task that provides opportunities for argumentation.
    • Use the Low/High Cognitive Demand Chart to guide your work
  • Bring examples of student work (written work, photos of whiteboards, etc…) to our next meeting on March 13!