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Arguments, Reasoning & Fallacies. R obo Móro. 13th PeWe Ontoparty , Gabčíkovo, 5 . 4 .201 3. moro @ fiit . stuba.sk. What is an argument?. Let the Monty Pythons explain…. What an argument is not. Abuse Complaining Denying.

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arguments reasoning fallacies

Arguments, Reasoning & Fallacies

Robo Móro

13th PeWeOntoparty, Gabčíkovo, 5.4.2013

moro@fiit.stuba.sk

what is an argument
What is an argument?
  • Let the Monty Pythons explain…
what an argument is not
What an argument is not
  • Abuse
  • Complaining
  • Denying
an argument is
An argument is
  • A series of sentences, statements, or propositions
  • Where some are the premises
  • And one is the conclusion
  • Where the premises are intended to give a reason for the conclusion
what are arguments used for
What are arguments used for
  • Persuading
    • Change somebody’s mind
  • Justification
    • Give good reason for the conclusions
  • Explaining
    • Increase understanding of something
tricks for defending arguments
“Tricks” for defending arguments
  • Assuring
  • Guarding
  • Discounting
  • Evaluation
assuring
Assuring
  • Assuring that something is true without giving the actual reason
    • If there is no reason given, it cannot be questioned
  • Authoritative
    • [Some authority] has said/shown/claims…
  • Reflexive
    • I am sure/believe/am certain…
  • Abusive
    • Everybody knows that.
    • It is stupid to think that… / It is common sense that…
guarding
Guarding
  • Involves making the premises weaker so that it is harder to object to them
  • Extent
    • All -> Most -> Many -> Some
  • Probability
    • It’s certain -> It’s probable -> There’s a chance -> He might have
  • Mental
    • Know -> Believe -> Tend to believe -> Inclined to believe
discounting
Discounting
  • Citing a possible criticism in order to reject it or counter it
    • The ring is expensive, but it is beautiful.
  • Discounting the straw people
    • The arguer discounts the easy objections to make people overlook the more difficult objections.
    • Pravica obhajuje rovnú daň, ale rovná daň nevyrieši všetky ekonomické problémy našej krajiny.
evaluation
Evaluation
  • Appeals to standards of some sorts
    • It is good / We ought to / We should
    • It is bad / We ought not to / We should not
  • However, standards are not presented
    • Cannot be questioned
    • Our claims are more defensible
fallacies
Fallacies
  • Errors in reasoning
    • Some typical errors are named and categorized
  • Arguments can be formally valid, but still fallacious
fallacies of vagueness
Fallacies of Vagueness
  • Arise from vagueness of the used terms
    • Bald, tall, fair, loud
  • Slippery-slope arguments
    • Causal slippery-slope:
      • If this happens, then some further thing of an even more radical nature will happen.
fallacies of ambiguity
Fallacies of Ambiguity
  • Semantic
    • Ours is a nation of laws. All of us must obey the laws. But God’s law forbids work on the Sabbath day. And therefore we must not work on the Sabbath Day.
  • Syntactic
    • The police cannot stop gambling. If you cannot stop gambling, you should seek therapy. Therefore, police should seek therapy.
fallacies of relevance ad hominem
Fallacies of Relevance: Ad Hominem
  • an argument directed against a person who is making a claim rather than against that person’s claim or argument for it
  • Deniers
    • Deny the truth of what is said or the strength or soundness of an argument
  • Silencers
    • Revoke the right to speak without necessarily denying the truth of what issaid
  • Dismissers
    • Dismiss the speaker as untrustworthy and unreliable
fallacies of relevance appeals to authority
Fallacies of Relevance: Appeals to Authority
  • Backs up the argument by citing some authority
  • Affirmers, Amplifiers, Supporters
    • Analogous to the Ad hominem argument types
  • What to watch out for:
    • Is the cited authority really an authority in the field/topic?
    • Can it be trusted?
    • Is it cited correctly?
    • Why is an appeal to authority made at all?
fallacies of relevance
Fallacies of Relevance
  • Appeal to popular opinion
  • Appeal to tradition
  • Appeal to pity
  • Appeal to fear
fallacies of vacuity
Fallacies of Vacuity
  • Begging the question
    • Argument raisesthe question of why anyone who denies its conclusion should accept its premises and that question has no adequate answer
    • It’s always wrong to murder human beings. Capital punishment involves murdering human beings. Therefore, capital punishment is wrong.
  • Circularity
    • Conclusion appears as one of the premises
  • Self-sealers
    • Arguments that cannot be refuted by counter-evidence
    • Everything happens for a reason…
refutation
Refutation
  • Straw man
    • Trying to refute the argument, but misinterpreting it by attacking the position no one actually propounds
  • False dichotomy
    • Listing only two possibilities: isn’t there a third option?
    • Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists.
a little example
A little example :-)
  • Mandatory vaccination or not?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Learn to make good arguments to achieve your purpose
  • Learn to spot the invalid or fallacious arguments made by others
    • Research papers
    • Politicians
    • Salesmen
sources
Sources
  • https://www.coursera.org/course/thinkagain
  • Sinnott-Armstrong, W. & Fogelin, R. (2010). Understanding Arguments.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQFKtI6gn9Y