AGE OF JACKSON The rise of Jacksonian Democracy
Jackson’s Legacy??? “Champion of the Common Man” “King Andrew”
Who was Andrew Jackson? • Born March 15, 1767 to parents who immigrated from Ireland • Believed to be the first president born in a log cabin • His father was killed in a logging accident before Andrew was born • Was a westerner(raised in Tennessee) • Grew up extremely poor
Who was Andrew Jackson? • He and his brother contracted smallpox while held prisoner by the British; his brother died • His mother served as a nurse to the prisoners aboard the British war ship; she contracted cholera and died • Andrew Jackson was an orphanby the age of 14 • Joined a militia during the American Revolution at the age of 13 • He and his brother Robert were captured by the British and held aboard a warship • Andrew’s face was slashed by a redcoat officer after he refused to shine the officer’s shoes
Who was Andrew Jackson? • Became a country lawyer in Tennessee • Joined the militaryin 1801 and fought during the War of 1812 • Became a national war hero for his leadership and victory at the Battle of New Orleans • Was an Indian fighteron the western frontier
Who was Andrew Jackson? • Became a well-respected politicianwho served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1796), U.S. Senate (1797), Tennessee Supreme Court Judge (1798-1804) • Was a planter, slave owner, and merchant at his home The Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee The Hermitage
Who was Andrew Jackson? • He was hot-tempered and had been involved in many duels throughout his life • He was a gamblerwho would bet on anything • The first presidential assassination attempt was made on President Jackson
Who was Andrew Jackson? • Married to Rachel Jackson, who had previously been married to another man • People treated Rachel very badly, and Andrew had lots of enemies because of the unfair treatment of his wife • Rachel died in 1828, two weeks after Jackson was elected president • He believed she died of a broken heart
Who was Andrew Jackson? • Andrew Jackson had the nickname of “Old Hickory” • Why? It was believed that he was as tough as an old hickory stick (nothing could break him)
Election of 1824 1. Four men ran for president in 1824 Andrew Jackson Henry Clay John Quincy Adams William Crawford
Election of 1824 • Results
Election of 1824 2. No one wins enough electoral votes to be named the winner • So who decides the winner? • House of Representatives • Who did they choose? • John Quincy Adams
Election of 1824 3. Jackson accuses Adams and Clay of a “corrupt bargain” • Henry Clay was Speaker of the House and supported Adams for President • Adams named Clay as the Secretary of State
Political Changes in the 1820s Democratic-Republicans Federalists as Democrats Whigs
Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson easily defeats John Quincy Adams to become the 7th president of the U.S.
Executive Branch 1828 President Andrew Jackson Vice President John C. Calhoun
Democratic Changes Under Jackson • Voting Rights • States eliminated the requirement of property ownership, so white males over 21 could vote
Democratic Changes Under Jackson • Choosing a President • Nominating conventions were held within political parties, giving the people more choice in who their candidate was
Democratic Changes Under Jackson • Campaigning Methods • Candidates held rallies, dinners, and public meetings; ordinary citizens were even invited to Jackson’s inauguration
Spoils System • Causes • President should be the voice of the common people • Supporters of Jackson were appointed to government positions • Permanent government officials led to office corruption
Spoils System • Effects • Average citizens had more voice in government • Rewarded for their loyalty because they cared about Jackson’s agenda • Changed people holding office more frequently to prevent corruption
Jacksonian Democracy • Causes • End of property qualifications for voters • Spoils system • New forms of campaigning • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzIhtO9ByUI&list=PLAC4445340D4F0972
Jacksonian Democracy • Effects • Expanded suffrage • Aimed to eliminate corruption caused by the rich • Politics became accessible to the ordinary person
Jackson vs. Native Americans • Before he was president, Andrew Jackson spent time on the westernfrontierfighting various Indian tribes • He proposed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, to move all tribes west of the Mississippi River • The Native Americans would agreeto move west in exchange for money, rifles and provisions from the federal government • The Cherokeerefused this proposal and remained in Georgia, claiming they were a nation separate from that of the United States • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUb8vUdc0Xo&list=PLAC4445340D4F0972
Jackson vs. Native Americans • Georgia passed a law in 1830 forbiddingwhite people from living among the Indians without a license from the governor • Samuel Worcester was a Christian missionary living among the Indians and was put in prison for 4 years • He sued to obtain his freedom, and his case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court
Jackson vs. Native Americans • Worcester v. Georgia (1832) ruling from Chief Justice John Marshall • The Cherokee were their own community(nation) • The laws of Georgiahad no force on Cherokee lands • Thus, Worcester should be set freeand the Cherokee should be left alone by the state of Georgia
Jackson vs. Native Americans • Jackson ignoredthis ruling and forced the Cherokee to move west of the Mississippi River anyway! • In 1837, federal troops escorted16,000 Cherokee Indians during the harsh winter to their new home in “Indian Territory” (now Oklahoma) • ¼died from starvation, freezing, and sickness
Jackson vs. Native Americans • The 800-mile journey of the Cherokee was known as the “Trail of Tears”
THOUGHT SPOT • Describe the differences between the land the Cherokee lived on in Georgia and the land they were forced on to in Oklahoma.
Pre-AP Analysis • Complete an APARTY analysis of this political cartoon (need handout)
Pre-AP Assignment • Turn to the back of your packet. • Read the information regarding your assignment. • Due Thursday, February 14th
Jackson vs. National Bank • The National Bank was created by Alexander Hamiltonin 1796 with the purpose of: • Organizing the federal government’s money • Allowing the Federaliststo control who received loans from the government • Challenges to the National Bank were dismissedby the Supreme Court, who gave validity to it in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Jackson vs. National Bank • Andrew Jackson hatedthe bank for the following reasons • Thought the bank was too powerful • It gave advantages to people who were already richinstead of the poor • Believed only statesshould be able to charter banks within their borders – not the federal government
Jackson vs. National Bank • Jackson decides to “destroy the monster” • 1832 – He vetoed the charter extension of the National Bank • 1836 – The charter officially expired • 1841 – The National Bank went bankrupt • Many felt that Jackson oversteppedhis bounds in dealing with the National Bank, as he ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling
Life After the Presidency • Actual picture of Andrew Jackson one year before his death (in 1844) • Never remarried…died alone, in massive debt, and in his home, The Hermitage, which was falling apart
So just who is Andrew Jackson? • War Hero?
So just who is Andrew Jackson? • Champion of the Common Man?
So just who is Andrew Jackson? • King Andrew?
BEFORE THE TARDY BELL RINGS • Have out the following items on your desk: • Andrew Jackson notes • One sheet of notebook paper • Writing utensil (already sharpened, ready to write, etc.) • NOTHING ELSE (no books, binders, etc.) • If you are out of your seat and not ready to begin class when the bell rings, you will be counted as tardy
What do YOU think? Was Jackson a the “Military Hero,” Champion of the Common Man,” or “King Andrew”? • You need to write one page explaining your thoughts on this topic. • Support your choice with at least 3 goodreasons. • Remember…the more you support your feelings, the better your grade will be. Make your decision and support it.