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Processes, Biofuels, and Bioproducts. Dr. Hanwu Lei's Group Bioproducts, Science, and Engineering Laboratory Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University. Outline. Dr. Hanwu Lei’s research group

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Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Processes, Biofuels, and Bioproducts

Dr. Hanwu Lei's Group

Bioproducts, Science, and Engineering Laboratory

Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University


Outline
Outline

  • Dr. Hanwu Lei’s research group

  • Processes: torrefaction, pyrolysis, catalysis, liquid-liquid extraction, organosolv liquefaction, hot-water pretreatment, organosolv fractionation, and fuel process kinetics

  • Biofuels: bio-oil, hydrocarbons, aromatics, hydrogen, biodiesel, fuel ethanol

  • Chemicals: bio-phenols, bio-polyols

  • Bioproducts: biochar, carbon catalyst, activated carbon, polyurethane foam (PUF), water resistant wood adhesive


Dr hanwu lei s group
Dr. Hanwu Lei’s Group

  • Post-Doc Research Associate:

     Lu Wang, PhD. Working on catalysis for jet fuels

  • Current Graduate Students:

    Yi Wei, PhD Research Assistant, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU; PhD dissertation: Pyrolysis oil upgrading via liquid extraction, esterification and upgrading via catalysts (in progress)

     Lei Zhu, PhD Research Assistant, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU; PhD dissertation: Development of processes and catalysts for aviation biofuels production (in progress)

     Xuesong Zhang, PhD Research Assistant, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU; PhD dissertation:Upgrading bio-oils from Douglas fir pellets with packed-bed catalysis over catalysts coupled with microwave-assisted pyrolysis (in progress)

     Yupeng Liu, MS student, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU; MS thesis: Torrefaction of Douglas fir pellets and its upgrading (in progress)

     Gayatri Yadavalli, MS student, Environmental Engineering, WSU; MS thesis: Activated carbon produced by microwave pyrolysis of biomass for use in waste treatment (in progress)


Dr hanwu lei s group1
Dr. Hanwu Lei’s Group

  • Graduated Students:

    Quan Bu, PhD, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU (Research Assistant from Aug. 2010-Aug. 2013; Now Assistant Professor at Nanjing Forestry University); PhD dissertation:Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass for renewable phenols and fuels (Graduated Summer 2013).

     Lu Wang, PhD, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU (Research Assistant from Aug. 2010-Aug. 2013; Now post-doc at Washington State University); PhD dissertation:Aromatic hydrocarbons production from catalyst assisted microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellet (Graduated Summer 2013).

    ShoujieRen, PhD, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU (Research Assistant from Jan. 2010-Dec. 2012; Now post-doc at University of Tennessee); PhD dissertation:Catalytic microwave torrefaction and pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet to improve biofuel quality (Graduated Fall 2012).

    IwonaCybulska, PhD, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, SDSU (Research Assistant from Jan. 2008-May. 2012; Now post-doc at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology); PhD dissertation:Pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic materials employed to produce fuel ethanol and value-added products (Graduated Spring 2012).

     Jing Liang, MS, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, WSU (Research Assistant from Aug. 2011-Aug. 2013; Now PhD student at University of California, Riverside); MS project title: Tech-economic analysis of microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellet (Graduated Summer 2013)


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Biomass Pyrolysis

Biomass has to be dried

before fast/flash pyrolysis

  • Conventional Pyrolysis:

Biomass

Bio-gas

Size reduction

required <1mm

Drying

Fast/Flash Pyrolysis

Bio-oil

Bio-char

  • Microwave Pyrolysis:

Wet biomass can be used

Biomass

Bio-gas

Size reduction

Not Required

Microwave Pyrolysis

Bio-oil

Bio-char


Energy consumed in size reduction

Energy Consumed in Size Reduction

Microwave:No energy required as size not important.

Demonstrated on 4 mm pellets, 7x15mm2 wood blocks, and 1x0.6x0.6m3 stover bales (Lei et al, 2009; Moen et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2011)

  • Conventional:> 1600 kJ/kg biomass for <1mm particles

    • Demonstrated on fluidized bed pyrolysis on particles <0.5 mm (Yi et al., 2008; Boateng et al., 2007; Luo et al., 2005)

Miao et al., 2011


Energy consumed in drying

Energy Consumed in Drying

Microwave: No energy required before pyrolysis!

Do NOT require biomass (8-20%MC) drying before pyrolysis stage

  • Conventional:2940 to 5538 kJ/kg of water

  • Requires biomass (8-20% MC) drying before pyrolysis

  • Energy required to evaporate water and increase temperature of both water and biomass.

  • Moreno et al., 2007; Hailer 1993; Snezhkin et al., 1997; Vanecek et al 1996; Moreno and Rios 2002; Renstrom and Berghel 2002


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Microwave vs Conventional: Energy Comparison

Microwave pyrolysis

Conventional pyrolysis

  • Conclusion:

  • Microwave pyrolysis consumes 504 kwh per ton of wet biomass

  • Conventional pyrolysis estimated to consume >910 kwh per ton of wet biomass

  • Microwave pyrolysis does not require energy for size reduction and uses less in pyrolysis.

  • ***Larger scale microwave pyrolysis requires less energy: University of Nottingham microwave pyrolysis pilot scale (250kg/hr) energy requirement: 230 kWh per tonne.


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Mass / energy balances of microwave pyrolysis for Douglas fir pellets

Bio-oil yield is about 60% based on dry Douglas fir pellets

Supply biochar for a coal-firing plant: 35% efficiency to electricity and 90% transmission efficiency to microwave pyrolysis plant =8,530,353*35%*90%=2,687,061 BTU

More than 150% electricity can be supplied from biochar firing


Microwave pyrolysis
Microwave Pyrolysis fir pellets

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu, J. Julson, and R. Ruan. 2012. Biofuel production and kinetics analysis of microwave pyrolysis for Douglas fir sawdust pellet. Journal of Analytic and Applied Pyrolysis, 94: 163-169. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2011.12.004.

  • H. Lei*, S. Ren, L. Wang, Q. Bu, J. Julson, J. Holladay, and R. Ruan. 2011. Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production. Bioresource Technology, 102 (10) 6208-6213, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.02.050

  • H. Lei*, S. Ren, and J. Julson. 2009. The effects of reaction temperature and time and particle size of corn stover on microwave pyrolysis. Energy and Fuels,23, 3254-3261.


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Biomass fir pellets Torrefaction to Torrefied Biomass

Yang H. et al., Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel, 2007, 86: 1781–1788

70-90% yield torrefied biomass

Torrefaction: 200–300℃ in absence of oxygen

  • Water is reduced

  • Hemicellulose is decomposed, cellulose and lignin are partial decomposed

  • O/C ratio is decreased

  • Heating value is increased

Tumuluru J.S. et al., A review on biomass torrefaction process and product properties for energy applications. Industrial Biotechnology, 2011, 7: 384-401.


Microwave torrefaction
Microwave Torrefaction fir pellets

  •  H. Lei* and S. Ren. 2010. Filed patent (US 61404560), Method and apparatus for biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis.

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu. 2013. Thermal behavior and kinetic study for woody biomass torrefaction and torrefied biomass pyrolysis by TGA. Biosystems Engineering, 116, 4, 420-426.doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.10.003.

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu, J. Julson, and R. Ruan. 2013. The effects of torrefaction on compositions of bio-oil and syngas from biomass pyrolysis by microwave heating. Bioresource Technology, 135, 659-994. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.06.091.

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, Y. Wei, J. Liang, Y. Liu, J. Julson, S. Chen, J. Wu, and R. Ruan. 2012. Microwave torrefaction of Douglas fir sawdust pellet. Energy & Fuels, 26, 5936-5943. doi: 10.1021/ef300633c.

shoulder


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Torrefied fir pellets Biomass Pyrolysis

Enhanced

Cellulose

+ gases + char

furans

Torrefied biomass

O-CH3homolysis hydrogenation

Char + gases

+ CH4

Lignin

catalysis

Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-

1,2-Benzenediol


Overview processes in dr lei s group

Lignocellulosic fir pellets

biomass

Hydrothermal/hot water pretreatment

Organosolv fractionation

Overview Processes in Dr. Lei’s Group

Torrefaction

Syngas

Microwave pyrolysis

Activated carbon

Char

Carbon catalysts

Pyrolysis bio-oil

Catalysis/Catalytic upgrading

Purification/separation

Substitute of petroleum-based

phenols as for chemical industry

(i.e. phenol formaldehyde resin, bio-plastics)

Biofuels

(i.e. gasoline, jet fuel)

Chemical feedstocks

(i.e. aromatics, phenols)


Aromatics

Dehydration fir pellets

Depolymerization

Catalyst assisted dehydration

Cellulose

Hemicelluloses

Aromatics

Fragmentation

Decarboxylation

Decarbonylation

Oligimerization

DF

Ethers, Alcohols,

Ketones, Aldehydes

Lignin

Zeolite Catalysis

Zeolite assisted demethoxylation

Depolymerization


Aromatics1
Aromatics fir pellets

  • H. Lei* and L. Wang. 2014. Filed patent (USPTO 61938416). Aromatic hydrocarbons from lignocellulose biomass.

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, Q. Bu, L. Zhu, Y. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, G. Yadavalli, J. Lee, S. Chen,and J. Tang. 2014. Aromatic hydrocarbons production from ex-situ catalysis of pyrolysis vapor over Zinc modified ZSM-5 in a packed-bed catalysis coupled with microwave pyrolysis reactor. Fuel. Under review.

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, J. Lee, S. Chen, J. Tang, B. Ahring. 2013. Aromatic hydrocarbons from packed-bed catalysis coupled with microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. RSC Advances, 34, 3, 14609 – 14615. doi: 10.1039/C3RA23104F.

  • Z. Du, X. Ma, Y. Li, P. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Lin, H. Lei, R. Ruan. 2013. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: Catalyst screening in a pyroprobe. Bioresource Technology, 139, 397-401 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.04.053

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, S. Ren, Q. Bu, J. Liang, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, G. J. Lee, S. Chen, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, and R. Ruan. 2012. Aromatics and phenols from catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets in microwave with ZSM-5 as a catalyst. Journal of Analytic and Applied Pyrolysis, 98, 194-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2012.08.002.


Aromatics2
Aromatics fir pellets

  • Aromatic hydrocarbons are the most desired products to increase fuel octane number and decrease the tendency of engine knock and damage.

  • Aromatics cause elastomeric seals swell and increase the fuel density to meet the minimum requirement in jet fuels.

  • Jet fuels without aromatics will cause some of these elastomers to shrink, which may lead to fuel leaks.

Aromatics in chemical refined petroleum fuels

Data derived from NIPER Report 1989 by National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER-428);

DFM and F-76 data derived from National Academy of Sciences.

US gas data from CA based Guided Wave, Inc.; other countries' data from Faruq et al., 2012.


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Opportunity for Utilizing Lignin fir pellets

  • General near-term opportunities (power, fuel and syngas)

  • Generally medium-term opportunities (macromolecules such as phenols (more than 95% of phenol used is derived from petroleum based benzene by cumene process))

  • Long-term opportunities (aromatics and other monomers)

Possible lignin transformation technologies

Holladay et al., 2007


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

Lignin-to-phenols Mechanism fir pellets

  • The high concentrations of bio-phenols were probably generated by the free radical reaction of O–CH homolysis where cellulose-derived volatiles and lignin-derived products function as H-donations and H acceptors, respectively.


Processes biofuels and bioproducts

GC/MS Analysis of Phenols Enriched Bio-oils fir pellets

  • The phenols content of bio-oils was 74.61%, 73.88% for MRX and DARCO 830, respectively vs. 2.5% of control.

  • The guaiacols content was 1.5% and 0% for MRX and DARCO 830, respectively vs. 52% of control.


Bio phenols
Bio-phenols fir pellets

  • H. Lei*,Q. Bu, S. Ren, and L. Wang. 2011. Filed patent (USPTO 61483132). Microwave Assisted Pyrolysis and Phenol Recovery.

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Y. Wei, L. Zhu, L. Zhu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu,G. Yadavalli and J. Tang. 2014. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons. Bioresource Technology. Under review

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Y. Liu,J. Liang, Y. Wei, L. Zhu, and J. Tang. 2013. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 142: 546-552. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.073.

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei*, A. H. Zacher, L. Wang, S. Ren, J. Liang, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, and R. Ruan. 2012. A review of catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived phenols from biomass pyrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 124, 470-477.doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.089. 07.10.12

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei*, S. Ren, L. Wang, Q. Zhang,J. Tang, and R. Ruan.2012.Production of phenols and biofuels by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology, 108: 274-279. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.125.

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei*, S. Ren, L. Wang, J. Holladay, Q. Zhang, J. Tang, and R. Ruan. 2011. Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. Bioresource Technology, 102: 7004-7007. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.025


Phenols
Phenols fir pellets

Phenolic Resins

  • Phenol and its derivatives are vital industrial chemical compounds found in myriad industrial products mainly produced from petroleum.

  • The phenol price is $1,609-1,649/ton CFR (cost and freight) according to ICIS Pricing Report (Feb. 2014).

  • Current phenol production volumes amount to 8 million tonnes per year and the phenol market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 3.9% over the next 10 years.

  • The phenol and its derivatives are currently used for chemical industry, and its main applications—phenolic resins, plastics, and caprolactam—achieve costs in the region of $1,870 to $3,120 per tonne.

N. Smolarski. 2012


Hydrogen and high quality syngas
Hydrogen and High Quality Syngas fir pellets

  • Y. Wei, H. Lei*, Y. Liu, L. Wang, L. Zhu, X. Zhang, G. Yadavalli, B. Ahring, S. Chen. 2014.Renewable hydrogen produced from different renewable feedstocks by aqueous-phase reforming process. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. In press.

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu. 2014. Hydrocarbons and hydrogen-rich syngas production by biomass catalytic pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading over biochar catalysts. RSC Advances, 4 (21), 10731 – 10737.doi: 10.1039/c4ra00122b.


Catalysis zeolite catalysts
Catalysis: Zeolite Catalysts fir pellets

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, Q. Bu, L. Zhu, Y. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, G. Yadavalli, J. Lee, S. Chen,and J. Tang. 2014. Aromatic hydrocarbons production from ex-situ catalysis of pyrolysis vapor over Zinc modified ZSM-5 in a packed-bed catalysis coupled with microwave pyrolysis reactor. Fuel. Under review.

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, J. Lee, S. Chen, J. Tang, B. Ahring. 2013. Aromatic hydrocarbons from packed-bed catalysis coupled with microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. RSC Advances, 34, 3, 14609 – 14615. doi:10.1039/C3RA23104F.

  • Z. Du, X. Ma, Y. Li, P. Chen, Y. Liu, X. Lin, H. Lei, R. Ruan. 2013. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: Catalyst screening in a pyroprobe. Bioresource Technology, 139, 397-401 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.04.053

  • L. Wang, H. Lei*, S. Ren, Q. Bu, J. Liang, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, G. J. Lee, S. Chen, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, and R. Ruan. 2012. Aromatics and phenols from catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets in microwave with ZSM-5 as a catalyst. Journal of Analytic and Applied Pyrolysis, 98, 194-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2012.08.002.

  • Z. Du, B. Hu, X. Ma, Y. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Lin, Y. Wan, H. Lei, P. Chen, and R. Ruan*. 2013. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae and their three major components: carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Bioresource Technology, 130: 777–782. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.115


Catalysis biochar catalysts and biomass derived carbon catalysts
Catalysis: Biochar Catalysts and Biomass Derived Carbon Catalysts

  • S. Ren, H. Lei**, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu. 2014. Hydrocarbons and hydrogen-rich syngas production by biomass catalytic pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading over biochar catalysts. RSC Advances, 4 (21), 10731 – 10737. doi: 10.1039/c4ra00122b.

  • L. Zhu, H. Lei*, L. Wang, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, Y Liu, G. Yadavalli. Characterization of surface functional groups in corn stover biochar derived from microwave-assisted pyrolysis. 2014 ASABE International Meeting,Jul 13-16, 2014, Montreal, QC, Canada.

  • L. Zhu, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and J. Liang. 2013. Carbon catalyst from corn stover and its application to catalytic microwave pyrolysis. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) 2013 Annual International Meeting, 2013(3): 1854-1860. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/aim.20131594788.

  • L. Zhu, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, J. Liang, Y. Wei, Y. Liu. Catalytic Microwave Pyrolysis of Douglas Fir Pellets With Carbon Catalysts Derived From Corn Stover. 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 3 – 8, 2013.


Catalysis activated carbon catalysts
Catalysis: Activated Carbon Catalysts Catalysts

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei**, L. Wang, Y. Liu,J. Liang, Y. Wei, L. Zhu, and J. Tang. 2013. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 142: 546-552. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.073.

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei**, L. Wang, Y. Liu,J. Liang, Y. Wei, L. Zhu, and J. Tang. 2013. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts. Bioresource Technology, 142: 546-552. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.073.

  • Q. Bu, H. Lei**, L. Wang, Y. Wei, L. Zhu, L. Zhu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu,G. Yadavalli and J. Tang. 2014. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons. Bioresource Technology. Under review.


Biochar for crop management herbicide absorbents and control of weeds
Biochar for Crop Management, Herbicide Absorbents, and Control of Weeds

  • D. D. Malo, S. A. Clay*, T.E. Schumacher, H. J. Woodard, D. E. Clay, R. H. Gelderman, H. Lei and J. L. Julson. Interactions of biochar source/properties impacts on soil properties, c sequestration potential, and crop management. In 2010 SunGrant Annual Meeting, Reno, NV.

  • Dr. Lei's biochar was used by Drs. Clay and Malo for herbicide sorption studies: Clay, S.A. and D.D. Malo. 2012. The Influence of Biochar Production on Herbicide Sorption Characteristics, Herbicides - Properties, Synthesis and Control of Weeds, M. N. A. E. Hasaneen (Ed.), InTech, ISBN: 978-953-307-803-8. http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-influence-of-biochar-production-on-herbicide-sorption-characteristics.


Liquid liquid extraction
Liquid-Liquid Extraction Control of Weeds

  • Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the phenols and guaiacols from water phase:

  • Chloroform solvent has a better results than the other two solvents on liquid-liquid extraction for selecting phenols and guaiacols.

  • When under 1:1 solvent to water-phase ratio, using chloroform as extraction solvent, the organic concentration reached to 85% of total phenol and guaiacols compounds in water-phase of bio-oil.

  • Through liquid-liquid extraction, sugar and acid can be completely removed from mixture and stayed in the water phase.

  • Y. Wei, H. Lei*, L. Wang, L. Zhu, X. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Chen, B. Ahring. 2014. Liquid-liquid extraction of biomass pyrolysis bio-oil. Energy and Fuels, 28(2), 1207-1212. doi: 10.1021/ef402490s.

  • C. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Moen, K. Hennessy, Y. Liu, X. Lin, Y. Wan, H. Lei*, P. Chen, and R. Ruan*. 2010. Fractionation and characterization of bio-oil from microwave-assisted pyrolysis of corn stover. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 3(3): 54-61.


Organosolv liquefaction bio polyurethane foam puf and bio adhesives
Organosolv Liquefaction Control of WeedsBio-Polyurethane Foam (PUF) and Bio-Adhesives

  • L. Gao, Y. Liu, H. Lei*, H. Peng, R. Ruan*. 2010. Preparation of semirigid polyurethane foam with liquefied bamboo residues. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 116, 1694-1699.

  • Y. Wang, J. Wu, Y. Wan, H. Lei*, F. Yu, P. Chen, X. Lin, and R. Ruan*. 2009. Liquefaction of corn stover using industrial biodiesel glycerol. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 2(2): 32-40.

Adhesive

Polyurethane foam


Hydrothermal hot water pretreatment
Hydrothermal/Hot Water Pretreatment Control of Weeds

  • I. Cybulska, G. Brudecki, H. Lei*. 2013. Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. In Green Biomass Pretreatment and Processing Methods for Bioenergy Production. Ed. T. Gu. Springer. ISBN: 978-94-007-6052-3. pp 87-106. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6052-3_4.

  • I. Cybulska, G. Brudecki, H. Lei*, J. Julson. 2012. Optimization of combined clean fractionation and hydrothermal post-treatment of prairie cord grass. Energy & Fuels, 26(4): 2303-2309. doi: 10.1021/ef300249m

  • I. Cybulska,H. Lei*, J. Julson.2010. Hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of prairie cord grass. Energy & Fuels, 24 (1): 718-727.


Organosolv fractionation separation
Organosolv Fractionation/Separation: Control of Weeds

Organic phase

  • I. Cybulska*, G. P. Brudecki, B. R. Hankerson, J. L. Julson, H. Lei. 2013. Catalyzed modified clean fractionation of switchgrass. Bioresource Technology, 127, 92-99. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.131. 03.08.12

  • I. Cybulska*, G. Brudecki, K. Rosentrater, J. Julson, H. Lei. 2012. Comparative study of organosolv lignins extracted from prairie cordgrass, switchgrass and corn stover. Bioresource Technology, 118C: 30-36. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.073.

  • I. Cybulska*, G. Brudecki, K. Rosentrater, H. Lei, J. Julson. 2012. Catalyzed modified clean fractionation of prairie cordgrass integrated with hydrothermal post-treatment. Biomass and Bioenergy, 46, 389-401. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.08.002.

  • I. Cybulska, H. Lei*, J. Julson, G. Brudecki. 2012. Optimization of Modified Clean Fractionation of Prairie Cord Grass. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 5(2): 42-51. doi: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20120502.00?

Organic phase

Aqueous phase

Aqueous phase

Cellulose after clean fractionation

Lignin precipitated


Fuel process kinetics
Fuel Process Kinetics Control of Weeds

  • S. Ren, H. Lei*, L. Wang, Q. Bu, S. Chen, J. Wu. 2013. Thermal behavior and kinetic study for woody biomass torrefaction and torrefied biomass pyrolysis by TGA. Biosystems Engineering, 116, 4, 420-426.doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2013.10.003.

  • H. Lei*, I. Cybulska,J. Julson. 2013. Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and kinetics. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 3(4): 250-259. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.34034.

  • R. Zhou, H. Lei*, J. Julson. 2013. Reaction temperature and time and particle size on switchgrass microwave pyrolysis and reaction kinetics. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 6(1): 53-61. dio: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20130601.005.

  • R. Zhou, H. Lei*, J. Julson. 2013. The Effects of pyrolytic conditions on microwave pyrolysis of prairie cordgrass and kinetics. Journal of Analytic and Applied Pyrolysis, 101, 172-176. doi: 10.1016/j.jaap.2013.01.013.


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Control of Weeds

  • My research group members: Dr. Quan Bu, Dr. Iwona Cybulska, Dr. Shoujie Ren, Dr. Lu Wang, and Ms. Jing Liang, Mr. Yupeng Liu, Mr. Yi Wei, Ms. Rui Zhou, Ms. Gayatri Yadavalli, Mr. Xuesong Zhang, and Mr. Lei Zhu

  • Collaborators: Dr. John Holladay, Dr. Rick Orth, Mr. Doug Elliott, Mr. Alan Zacher, Dr. Ayman Karim, Dr. John Lee, Dr. James Julson, Dr. Katie Zhong, Dr. Roger Ruan, Dr. Gary Fulcher, and many others.


Thank you
Thank you! Control of Weeds

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