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Biofuels
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  1. Biofuels

  2. History of biofuels • Inconsistencies with biofuels? • Projects • Algenol Company • Sapphire Energy Company • Where biofuels are now • Trends that will shape the future Why Biofuels?

  3. The engine? • Rudolf Diesel invented his engine to work primarily with vegetable oil • Henry Ford intended his Model T to run on ethanol (grew up on a farm….) • Forced out by the supply, price, and efficiency of petroleum. • Events to come back to biofuels • 1970: Passage of the Clean Air Act • Allows EPA to regulate emission standards… • Amended in 1990 • 1973: Arab oil embargo • 1978: Iranian Revolution • August 1982: International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils • 1992: Energy Policy Act passed by the EPA • Increased use of alternative energy by the US government • Amended in 1998 specifically included biodiesel History of Biofuels

  4. Will destroy food supply • It will increase emissions • Clear cut for increase crops • Increase food prices • Less crops for food • “Will complicate and worsen a number of social and environmental problems” • Oil Change International ARE THESE THE FACTS? Arguments against biofuels

  5. BIOFUELS MADE FROM ALGAE • Decrease food supply?.......We don’t eat algae • Increase emissions by clear cut?......No clear cutting is needed • Increase cost of food?……covered that already • I fail to see how fuels will put a strain on social and ecological systems The Facts About Biofuels

  6. Algenol’s new idea? • Developed the technology in 1980’s • Began commericaleffort when crude hit $50 barrel (2006) • As of 1/6/11, crude is $135 a barrel • There are over 10,000 strains of algae • Algenol does not cultivate its algae • It siphons produced ethanol by its bioreactor tubes How does Algae produce biofuel? Wastewater + CO2 + Sunlight + Algae = Ethanol + Biodiesel + Other Products That Used to Use Petroleum + WATER (is used to grow the algae) Bottom line: Algae is 100% renewable with no harmful effects on the environment and is closed looped A Company Named Algenol

  7. $850 million to build an algae farm in the Sonoran Desert • Ethanol at constant $3 per gallon • Aim to produce 6000 gallons per acre per year • Production begins by the end of 2010 • Production costs = 85 cents per gallon • By 2012 – 1 billion gallons annually Algae In The Desert

  8. Sapphire Energy in New Mexico • Why New Mexico? • Flat desert conditions • High level of sunlight • Large amount of underground salt water • 100% renewable resource • Received $104.5 million (federal funding) • $50 million from Department of Energy • $54.5 million from Department of Agriculture • Private investors? • Wellcome Trust • Cascade (owned by Bill Gates) • Venrock (Rockfeller) • ARCH Venture Partners Algae in the United States?

  9. 300 acre integrated algal biorefinery • 1 million gallons of diesel and jet fuel per year by 2011 • 100 million gallons by 2018 • 1 billion gallons by 2025 • SO WHERE DOES THAT LEAVE US? • Assuming that efficiency does not play a role… • Biofuel mixed with petroleum so an accurate comparison is difficult • U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (numbers are not strictly transportation) • 42 gallons = 1 barrel • 6.85 billion barrels of oil in 2009 • 6.99 billion barrels of oil in 2010 • 293.58 BILLION GALLONS PER YEAR Sapphire’s Plan

  10. Biofuels play a minute role in the grand scheme • Oil price increase, increase investment in biofuels • Critics to biofuels? • Don’t know the facts yet still attempt to derail efforts • Businesses will invest? • New jobs!!!!!! • 750 jobs to build the algae farm (Sapphire) Biofuels Today

  11. Biodiesel can run in a standard diesel engine with no modifications to the engine (Bioethanol as well) • Oil companies will have to take a risk • Decreasing oil supply vs. unlimited algae supply • Political pressure? • Nothing is going to change with the current infrastructure… • Social change is necessary? • Hummer and “soccer mom” van? • Bigger is not always better… So what does the future look like…? • ECONOMIC TRENDS!!! • As gas prices increase (due to the supply of oil decreasing) consumers will want to by cheaper fuel…the fuel of the future Biofuels In The Future

  12. http://lugar.senate.gov/energy/graphs/sector.html http://priceofoil.org/2009/08/17/policy-re-think-needed-for-biofuels-bogeyman/ http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/alternative-fuels/biodiesel2.htm http://www.algenolbiofuels.com/cnetalgaefarmmexico061608-2.pdf http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/biofuel/4333722 http://www.sapphireenergy.com/news-article/86040-green-energy-in-new-mexico-man-made http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=33&t=6 http://www.solarpowerwindenergy.org/2011/01/30/efficiency-of-biofuels/ http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8&q=barrel+of+oil+to+gallons%3F#sclient=psy&hl=en&tbm=nws&source=hp&q=1+barrel+of+oil+to+gallons%3F&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=bfaf2b1ed4d1de2 Sources

  13. http://www.greencitizens.net/news/archive.php?c_nam http://www.bigpictureblog.info/?p=120e=Energy&month=July%2010 http://ecoble.com/2008/02/25/7-brilliant-but-questionable-eco-power-innovations/ https://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Parry.Saulenas http://www.ceres.net/aboutus/AboutUs-Biofuels-Advantage.html http://gas2.org/2011/04/22/algea-based-fuels-could-cut-foreign-oil-use-by-17/ http://domesticfuel.com/2010/08/16/investments-spark-speculation-on-algal-biodiesel/ http://richc.myarchive.us/2009/10/algae-based-biofuelbiodiesel-highlighted/ http://lugar.senate.gov/energy/graphs/sector.html http://peakoil.com/what-is-peak-oil/ http://guayuleblog.com/29/alternative-energy/world-needs-alternatives-to-biofuels-from-food-crops/ http://domesticfuel.com/2008/06/11/algae-ethanol-coming-soon/ http://www.heroicinvesting.com/price-of-oil-expected-to-top-out-here-in-2011 http://seekingalpha.com/article/263639-oil-forecast-for-second-quarter-2011 http://www.tflcar.com/2010/11/why-pay-for-gasoline-when-you-can-now-fuel-up-your-car-with-algae.html http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-07/britain-finally-sees-light-admits-biofuels-are-bad-news http://fl912-windsor.blogspot.com/ http://www.waymotor.com/list_details.php?id=1&sub=Unique%20Cars http://www.tirereview.com/article/78011/vehicle_and_tire_changes_caused_by_cafe_standards.aspx http://venturebeat.com/2008/05/29/sapphire-energy-gets-open-checkbook-from-investors-for-algae-based-gasoline/ http://www.sandiego.com/business/sapphire-energy-biofuel-from-algae http://revolutionarypolitics.com/?p=5441 http://inhabitat.com/transportation-tuesday-worlds-first-biodiesel-jet/ http://www.clipartof.com/interior_wall_decor/details/Blue-Globe-Circled-By-A-Green-Vine-With-A-Large-Nozzle-Dripping-Green-Bio-Fuel-Poster-Art-Print-30314 Picture Sources