WHAT DO HIGHER DATA RATES MEAN TO CELLULAR AND CONNECTIVITY TESTING? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WHAT DO HIGHER DATA RATES MEAN TO CELLULAR AND CONNECTIVITY TESTING?

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  1. WHAT DO HIGHER DATA RATES MEAN TO CELLULAR AND CONNECTIVITY TESTING?

  2. Wireless Industry Trends • Key market drivers for the wireless industry: • Smartphone & Tablet Continuing to Grow Worldwide • Units increasing by 340M units to 2.45B annually by 2018 • Handset ASP shrinking by >5% YoY • Companies releasing 2x - 3x more new designs annually to meet both premium & basic smart phone demands • Shrinking Device Size While Increasing Complexity • Mobile IC’s moving away from conventional package to wafer-level package technologies (Flip-chip, WLCSP, FOWLP) • Wafer Scale Package technologies provide 50% smaller device footprint • Shrinking geometries (65nm  45nm  28nm) enabling 2x – 3x content increases on smaller die sizes • Increase Demand for Higher Data Rate & Connectivity • Overall mobile data traffic is expected to grow at a 61% CAGR to 15.9 Exabytes per month by 2018 • MIMO & Carrier Aggregation requiring 2x-3x more active RX & TX device ports • Internet-of-things driving rapid growth of MCU + RF segment

  3. Methods of Increasing Data Rate • Very High Throughput requirements are met three ways: • Increasing BW. • Wider Bandwidths / Aggregation • 2) Increasing the number of bits/symbol. • Constellation Density • Link Adaptation & Fast Scheduling • UL / DL ratio • Forward Error Correction • Cyclic Prefix reduction • 3) Increasing the number of Spatial Streams. • Diversity • Beam forming • MIMO • MU-MIMO 64 QAM 256 QAM Spatial Multiplexing Multi-User MIMO

  4. Two Standards – W-CDMA and OFDM -1000G – Coded Message • Early Communications -500G – First Cell (-2000G - BPSK)

  5. Two Standards – W-CDMA and OFDM • Problems with using Smoke to send messages - WIND -500G -400G 3G W-CDMA Raised Root Cosine Filter w/ Alpha = 0.22 (HSPA+) WCDMA – Has similar traits to smoke, in that its noisy and is required to be filtered to stay with in its allocated frequency. This hinders WCDMA from making the best use of its bandwidth.

  6. Two Standards – W-CDMA and OFDM • Early Communications -2200G -150G – Coded Message Frequency and Spatial Separation combined -240G – Coded Message Spatial Separation Would have helped 3G OFDM (802.11a,g,n,ac & LTE) OFDM used for LTE and WLAN – Has similar traits to light, in that if the frequencies have a minimal separation – they tend not to interfere with each other. This allows OFDM to make good use of its spectrum.

  7. Methods of Increasing Data Rate • Very High Throughput requirements are met three ways: • Increasing BW. (LTE 100M Aggregation, 802.11ac 160M) • Wider Bandwidths / Aggregation • 2) Increasing the number of bits/symbol. . (LTE 64 QAM , 802.11ac 256 QAM) • Constellation Density • Link Adaptation & Fast Scheduling • UL / DL ratio • Forward Error Correction • Cyclic Prefix reduction • 3) Increasing the number of Spatial Streams.(802.11ac supports up to 8x8 MIMO) • MIMO

  8. Cellular evolution

  9. Wider Bandwidth & Aggregation – Higher Data Rates • LTE Supports many different types of bandwidth configurations. 1.4,3,5,10,20M and any combo up to 100M • TEST – support required bandwidth LTE-Advanced Maximum Bandwidth 5 x 20MHz 20MHz 20MHz 20MHz 20MHz 20MHz

  10. Wider Bandwidth & Aggregation – Higher Data Rates • 802.11acSupports many different types of bandwidth configurations. 20,40,80,160M • Note that there is also an aggregation mode for 802.11ac – that’s called 80+80.

  11. Wider Bandwidth & Aggregation – Test • High frequency modulation signal • Sourcing a wider bandwidth signal requires much better baseband instruments than narrow band signals. Skew is one of the biggest concerns. The UltraWave 12G, UltraWave 24, and the UltraPAC80 have skew accuracy and repeatability performance to test wide bandwidth waveforms. 802.11ac 160M EVM Limit = 2.51%

  12. Methods of Increasing Data Rate • Very High Throughput requirements are met three ways: • Increasing BW. (LTE 100M Aggregation, 802.11ac 160M) • Wider Bandwidths / Aggregation • 2) Increasing the number of bits/symbol. . (LTE 64 QAM , 802.11ac 256 QAM) • Constellation Density • Link Adaptation & Fast Scheduling • UL / DL ratio • Forward Error Correction • Cyclic Prefix reduction • 3) Increasing the number of Spatial Streams.(802.11ac supports up to 8x8 MIMO) • MIMO

  13. Constellation Density – Higher Data Rate • 16 QAM = 4 Bits per symbol • 64 QAM = 6 Bits per symbol • 256 QAM = 8 Bits per symbol • Constellation Density is determined by quality of the signal at the RX. If poor signal / bits dropped – Then the TX reduces the density. Measured Signal Test Limit Ideal Signal LTE Base Station = 13.5% LTE User Equip 12.5% 802.11ac = 11.22% LTE Base Station = 9.0% 802.11ac = 3.98% 802.11ac = 2.51% - Device Spec Limit 16-QAM 802.11a/g, LTE 64-QAM 802.11a/g/n; LTE-A 256-QAM 802.11 ac

  14. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHANNEL? • In order to achieve higher data rates – some methods require an understanding of the channel. • This channel information is communicated to the base station (BS) by the user equipment (UE) or its signal. • FDD vs. TDD - TDD can be have more up to date information, because UL shares the same channel as DL UL ? DL

  15. Link Adaptation & Fast Scheduling • Link Adaptation - Data Rates are varied based of information about the channel at a given time. TDD is often more up to date. • Used with - 802.11ac & HSPA + & LTE • Fast Scheduling – When users data is sent the data rate can vary to take advantage of better channel conditions – Resulting in higher data rate = less on time = better battery life. • Used with - HSPA+ & LTE • TEST – Data Rate normally does not change during test – However VSA can handle it. LTE Example - Resource Blocks Data Rate vs Channel

  16. UL / DL Ratio – Higher Data Rate • In order to be flexible with users needs for more UL or more DL a scheduling plan was created. Below is an example for LTE TDD • HSPA+ • HSDPA was designed to favor DL and HSUPA for UL. HSPA+ was designed to be more flexible with DL and UL scheduling. • TEST – Normally this does not change during test LTE - TDD

  17. Others • Forward Error correction (FEC) 802.11a/g • Cyclic Prefix reduction – Higher Data rate FFT Window Figure 1 Figure 2

  18. Methods of Increasing Data Rate • Very High Throughput requirements are met three ways: • Increasing BW. (LTE 100M Aggregation, 802.11ac 160M) • Wider Bandwidths / Aggregation • 2) Increasing the number of bits/symbol. . (LTE 64 QAM , 802.11ac 256 QAM) • Constellation Density • Link Adaptation & Fast Scheduling • UL / DL ratio • Forward Error Correction • Cyclic Prefix reduction • 3) Increasing the number of Spatial Streams.(802.11ac supports up to 8x8 MIMO) • MIMO

  19. MIMO – Higher Data Rates • MIMO - Multiple Input into the channel and Multiple Outputs from the channel. • MIMO utilizes the multi-path environment so that signals are different. • MIMO uses two or more antennas to transmits different information on each antenna. For each antenna added the data rate is increased by the multiple of the number of antennas over the SISO rate. • Each MIMO stream contains not only the data, but information that will assist the receiver in demodulating the signal. This advancement in MIMO technology is primary due to higher end processor that are able to do the math to pull the data apart. • TEST • Each path should be active and can be tested as MIMO or Signal Channel. • Cross talk between streams can be tested with ESA – however seldom is

  20. Testing Challenges • 1. Provide full test coverage to guarantee device quality • RF Source Accuracy • EVM test capability • ACLR performance for out of band service providers compliance Source: www.qualcomm.com LTE Commercial Release Timeline Provide economical solution for high volume productionLTE-Advanced requires up to 5x modulated data compared to 3G.

  21. UltraFLEX RF:#1 Production Solution for Wireless Teradyne: #1 ranked RF ATE company since 2008(source: Gartner, April 2014) UltraFLEX RF Specifiers: Based on 2013 Reported Revenue (Gartner, April 2014) UltraFLEX RF Test Partners: >515 UltraFLEX RF systems installed since 4Q-2007 • Lowest cost of test • Fastest time to market • Highest performance instruments • Easiest to use software Teradyne Confidential