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English Word Formation. Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlanga University. Types of Word Formation. Compounding Prefixation Suffixation Conversion Clipping Blends Backformation Acronyms Onomatopoeia Eponyms Toponyms. 1. Compounding.

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english word formation

English Word Formation

Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlanga University

types of word formation
Types of Word Formation
  • Compounding
  • Prefixation
  • Suffixation
  • Conversion
  • Clipping
  • Blends
  • Backformation
  • Acronyms
  • Onomatopoeia
  • Eponyms
  • Toponyms
1 compounding
1. Compounding
  • Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word.
  • Examples:
    • Home + work  homework
    • Pick + pocket  pickpocket
  • The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts.
  • Types of compounds:
    • Compound nouns
    • Compound verbs
    • Compound adjectives
slide4

Compound Nouns

  • Boyfriend, hatchback
  • Cut-throat, breakfast
  • Sunshine, birth control
  • Software, fast food
  • In-crowd, overkill
  • Drop-out, put-on
  • Noun + Noun
  • Verb + Noun
  • Noun + Verb
  • Adjective + Noun
  • Particle + Noun
  • Verb + Particle
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Compound Verbs

  • Carbon-copy, sky-dive
  • Fine-tune
  • Overbook
  • Bad-mouth
  • Noun + Verb
  • Adjective + Verb
  • Particle + Verb
  • Adjective + Noun
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Compound Adjectives

  • Capital-intensive
  • Deaf-mute
  • Coffee-table
  • Roll-neck
  • White-collar
  • Before-tax
  • Go-go
  • Noun + Adjective
  • Adjective + Adjective
  • Noun + Noun
  • Verb + Noun
  • Adjective + Noun
  • Particle + Noun
  • Verb-verb
2 prefixation
2. Prefixation
  • Class-changing prefixes:
    • a-  asleep  V to Adj
    • be-  bewitch  N to V
    • en-  enslave  N to V
  • Class-maintaining prefixes:
    • in-  indefinite  Adj to Adj
    • fore-  foreman  N to N
    • Etc.
3 suffixation
3. Suffixation
  • Suffixes forming Nouns
    • N from N: -dom  kingdom
    • N from V: -ee  employee
    • N from Adj: -ce  dependence
  • Suffixes forming Verbs
    • V from N: -ify  beautify
    • V from Adj: -en  shorten
  • Suffixes forming adjectives
    • Adj from N: -al  educational
    • Adj from V: -able  understandable
    • Adj from Adj: -ish  greenish
  • Suffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise.
4 conversion
4. Conversion
  • Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category.
  • Types of Conversion
    • Verb to Noun: to hit  a hit
    • Adj to N: a final game  a final
    • N to V: a sign  to sign
    • Adj to V: an empty box  to empty
5 clipping
5. Clipping
  • Definition: Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables
  • Examples:
    • Gasoline  Gas
    • Hamburger  Burger
  • delicatessen 
  • microphone 

deli

mike

6 blends
6. Blends
  • Definition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted.
  • Examples:
    • Motor + hotel  Motel
    • Breakfast + lunch  Brunch
    • Wireless + Fidelity 
    • Sheep + goat 

Wi-fi

Shoat

7 back formations
7. Back-formations
  • Definition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis.
  • Examples:
    • editor (1649)

 edit (1791)

    • television (1907)

 televise (1927)

    • Paramedical (1921)

 paramedic (1967)

8 acronyms
8. Acronyms
  • Definition: Words derived from the initial letters of several words and use them as a new word
  • Examples:
    • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Treats

 SWOT

    • Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

 SCUBA

9 onomatopoeia
9. Onomatopoeia
  • Definition: Words created to sound like the thing that they name.
10 eponyms
10. Eponyms
  • Definition: a person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named.
  • Examples:
    • Celcius (Anders Celcius)
    • Cook Islands (James Cook)
11 toponyms
11. Toponyms
  • Definition: a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature.
  • Examples:
    • Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish)
    • Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)
slide17

That's all...

See you next week.

Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlanga University