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Tim Ingold From Complementarity to Obviation. Par Luc Faucher. Heidegger dans la nature. « You have to be in a world to imagine yourself out of it, and it is through this being-in-the-world that you become what you are. » (257). L’objectif d’une vie.

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heidegger dans la nature
Heidegger dans la nature

« You have to be in a world to imagine yourself out of it, and it is through this being-in-the-world that you become what you are. » (257)

l objectif d une vie
L’objectif d’une vie
  • « It was, in part, the challenge of closing the gap between the arts and humanities on the one hand, and the natural sciences on the other, that drew me to anthropology in the first place, and I still believe that no other discipline is in a better position to accomplish it. » (255)
une distinction
Une distinction
  • « Complementarity » vs « Obviation »
  • Méthode analytique: considère éléments séparément et en fait la synthèse (biosocial, psychoculturel, biopsychoculturel).
  • Méthode holiste (?): pas d’éléments séparés, mais un « singular locus of creative growth within a continually unfolding field of relationships. » (256)
deux images de l homme
Deux images de l’homme
  • Classique: l’homme existe simultanément dans deux mondes parallèles (et irréductibles): la nature et la culture. En tant que personnes, les humains « flottent sans ancrage» au-dessus de la nature.
  • Nouvelle: Sont à la fois des organismes et des personnes.
deux positions
Deux positions
  • Accepter la dichotomie, remettre ensemble les points de vue partiels provenant des deux plans (complementarity).
  • Rejeter la dichotomie,sans tomber dans le réductionnisme ou le constructionnisme social (obviation).
  • Avantage est de réinsérer la culture dans la nature (p. 257)
exemple du parentage kinship
Exemple du parentage (kinship)
  • Complementarity: à la fois composante innée (comportement) et la façon dont ces comportements sont canalisés en termes de représentations culturelles spécifiques.
exemples du parentage
Exemples du parentage
  • Obviation: “ … would begin by recognizing that behavioral dispositions are neither preconstituted genetically nor simply downloaded onto passively receptive individual from superior source in society, but are rather formed in and through a process of ontogenetic development within a specific environmental context.” (257)
  • Biologique (développement) et social (expériences vécues, pas représentations).
exemple du bi p disme
Exemple du bi-pédisme
  • « For a start, human babies are not born walking: rather, the ability to walk is itself an acquired skill that develops in an environment that includes walking caregivers, a range of supporting objects, and a certain terrain. » (258)
  • Plus grande plasticité du développement.
d veloppement
  • Complementarity: image incohérente du développement (partie génétiquement préconstituée, partie moulée par la culture).
  • Obiviation: les humains se développent dans un environnement constitué d’autres humains. Élimine la dichotomie.
  • “… throughout life, the body undergoes processes of growth and decay, and as it does so, particular skills, habits, capacities, and strengths, as well as debilities and weaknesses, are enfolded into its very constitution …” (258)
  • Insatisfait avec Merleau-Ponty qui reprend la dichotomie (?)
final step for embodiment
Final step for embodiment
  • “… the body is the human organism, and that the process of embodiment is one and the same as the development of that organism in its environment.” (259)
  • Human as a “living organism”.
mythe du g notype
Mythe du génotype
  • Programme développementaux font partie du génotype.
  • Mais rend le concept vide(?): « One would otherwise have to suppose that human beings were genotypically endowed, at the dawn of history, with the capacity to do everything that they ever have done in the past, and ever will do in the future  … » (261)
  • Adaptation vs exaptation: systèmes développementaux mettent-ils cette distinction en péril?
solution non fixit
Solution: non-fixité
  • « We look in vain for the evolutionary origins of human capacities for the simple reason that these capacities continue to evolve in the very historical unfolding of our lives. » (263)
  • Pas de point d’origine de nos capacités qui après-coup n’auraient qu’à être activées.
«… the humans today are not like their predecessors. This is because these characteristics are not fixed genetically but emerge within processes of development, and because the circumstances of development today, cumulatively shaped through previous human activity, are very different from those of the past. » (263)
paysage et environnement
Paysage et environnement
  • Lewontin, pas d’environnement fixe.
  • Appliquée aux artefacts. Pas de sens indépendant du contexte d’usage (projets de vie).
  • « We cannot,…, make a hard and fast distinction between one class of things that are ready-made in nature, and another class of things that have been made through the shaping of naturally given raw material into a finished artefactual form. » (264)
  • The environment, in short, is not the same as the physical world…. Rather, the environment is the the world as it exists and takes on meaning in realtion ot the beings that inhabit it. As such, its formation has to be understood in the same way that we understand the growth of organisms and persons, in terms of the properties of dynamic self-organization of relational fiedls. » (265)
psychologie et anthropologie
Psychologie et anthropologie
  • Psychologie comme terme intermédiaire entre la biologie et la culture (Mauss).
  • Mais l’esprit indépendant est une invention.
  • Fait le pont entre corps et esprit (biologie vs anthropologie et psychologie) et individu et collectivité (biologie et psychologie vs anthropologie).
  • Abolir barrière séparant psychologie et disciplines sociales: « The discipline that will be brought into being through the dissolution of this boundary, whatever we choose to call it, will be the study of how people perceive, act, feel, remember, think, and learn within the settings of their mutual, practical involvement in the live-in world. » (266)
  • Classique: les sens-data sont produits par les organes récepteurs en réponse aux stimuli de l’environnement; puis ces sens-data sont traités pour générer une image du monde extérieur.
  • Anthropologie s’intéresse à l’influence de la culture sur la construction des modèles.
  • Perception différente est due, non au traitement différent des mêmes sens-data, mais plutôt aux différences dans l’entraînement à des tâches pratiques variées « … involving particular bodily movements and sensibilities, to orient themselves to the environment and to attend to its feature in different ways. » (267)
perception directe
Perception directe

• “What is ‘direct’ visual perception? I argue that the seeing of

an environment by an observer in that environment is direct in that

it is not mediated by visual sensations or sense data. ... Direct

perception is not based on the having of sensations.” (Gibson, ‘A

theory of direct visual perception’, 1974, p. 215)

• “In my theory, perception is not supposed to occur in the brain but

to arise in the retino-neuro-muscular system as an activity of the

whole system.” (1974, p. 217)

• “I shall suggest that natural vision depends on the eyes in the head

on a body supported by the ground, the brain being only the central

organ of a complete visual system.” (1979, p. 1)

m moire
  • Mémoire comme entrepôt vs mémoire comme ‘skill’.
  • CD vs performance de la pièce.
  • Entrepôt: « Remembering is then a rather simple process of searching or scanning, across a complexly structured cognitive array. » (268)
Skill: « … remembering is itself a skilled, environmentally situated activity. … remembering is a matter not of discovering structures in the attics of our minds, but of generating them from our movements in the world. » (268-9)
  • Mémoire est le produit d’un schéma qui est réajusté à la lumière des expériences.
apprentissage en deux temps
Apprentissage en deux temps
  • Obligation de poser des structures innées pour permettre l’apprentissage de l’information ou les représentations culturelles.
  • LAD: « It would thus appear that langage acquistion is a two-stage process: in the first, the LAD is constructed; in the second, it is furnishd with specific syntactic and semantic content. » (270)
apprentissage maill
Apprentissage maillé
  • « The environment, …, is not a source of variable input for a preconstructed device, but rather furnishes the variable conditions for the growth or self-assembly, in the course of early development, of the neurophysiological structures underwrting the child’s capacity to speak. » (270)
informations culturelles
Informations culturelles
  • « The notion that culture is transmissible from one generation to the next as a corpus of knowledge, independently of its application in the world, is untenable for the simple reason that it rests on the impossible precondition of a ready-made cognitive architecture. » (272)
  • Pas transmission, mais « guided rediscovery ». Apprentissage est éducation de l’attention.
  • Psychologie développementale a ignoré culture pour mécanisme universel d’acquisition; anthropologie ignore enfant, puisque adultes incomplets.
  • Enfants représentent le degré zéro de la culture, le biologique à l’état pur, peuvent donc être négligés par l’anthropologie.
  • Approche Obviation brise dichotomie enfant-adulte, comme celle entre nature et culture.
enfants et la v rit
Enfants et la vérité
  • Affordances différentes.
  • Les enfants ne sont pas des personnes incomplètes.
  • ‘Children have to live their lives in terms of their understandings just as adults do; their ideas are grounded in their experience and thus equally valid.’ (Toren, cité p. 274)
  • « Any divisions within this field of inquiry [of the relations between organism-persons and their environments] must rather than absolute, depending on what is selected as one’s focus rather than on the a priori separation of substantitive, externally bouded domains ». (276)