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Mark Hankins Energy for Sustainable Development AFRICA Nairobi Kenya

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Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa: Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector. Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab November 2005. Mark Hankins Energy for Sustainable Development AFRICA Nairobi Kenya. Design of WB GEF PV Program

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Approaches to Rural Electrification in East Africa:Donors, Projects, Rural Energy Agencies & the Private Sector

Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab

November 2005

Mark Hankins

Energy for Sustainable

Development AFRICA

Nairobi Kenya

slide2

Design of WB GEF PV Program

  • Design of Rural Energy Agency
  • PV Commercialization
  • Support to Energy for Rural Transformation
  • PV training & infrastructure
  • NGO projects

Sudan

  • PV Commercialization
  • Decentralized energy supply
  • NGO projects

Somalia

Ethiopia

  • PV training, infrastructure, finance & study
  • Mini-grid & wind development
  • Various private sector in rural energy
  • NGO projects
  • PV system design

Uganda

Kenya

  • National PV Project
  • NGO Projects
  • Design of Rural Energy Agency
  • PV Training & Infrastructure
  • Pilots for REA

Tanzania

East Africa and the Horn of Africa

20 years work experience

slide3

Rural Energy Access is Extremely Limited

Rural Electrification is less than 5% in most sub-Sahara African Countries!!!!!

slide6

How Are We Doing?

Connections/Year

Pretty Bad!!!!

RE is going backwards

why re is so slow in africa
Why RE is so Slow in Africa
  • 25% financing 75%
  • Low capacities to pay
  • Dispersed rural populations
  • Lack of power in grid
  • Lack of investment
  • Corruption, bureaucracy, politics, war
  • Approaches do not match need categories
  • Lack of focus (too much “flavor of the month”)
  • Not enough good people in RE???
3 basic strategies for re
3 Basic Strategies for RE
  • Grid Extension
  • Micro-Mini Isolated Grid
    • Hydro
    • Thermal
    • Co-Gen
    • Wind hybrid
  • Dispersed or Isolated Systems
    • BBS & PV
    • Gen-Set
    • Wind, micro-hydro, hybrids, etc
non electric energy needs and sources
Non-Electric Energy Needs and Sources

Applications

  • Cooking
  • Heating
  • Air conditioning
  • Pumping
  • Milling
  • Refrigeration
  • Etc

Important Sources

  • Wood, residues
  • Charcoal - major environmental issues
  • LPG - modern cooking fuel which could help overcome cooking fuel shortages
  • Kerosene
  • Biogas
  • Etc.
commercial non project electrification
Commercial Non-Project Electrification
  • Less than 3% have access to grid electricity but spending power is there
  • Cell phone market illustrates market potential
  • $100’s of millions spent on electricity by rural people (not including kerosene)
    • Small generators
    • Lead acid batteries (Uganda)
      • $10 per month per battery
      • $1-3 per charge
      • ~200-300,000 HH use
      • Charging industry makes $27M/year
    • Dry cells (Uganda)
      • $6 per mo per rural HH
      • 94% of HH use
      • ~460 million dry cells/annum

@$230M (not possible)

late 1990 s paradigm switch
Late 1990’s: Paradigm Switch??
  • Post liberalisation of power sector
  • A new paradigm
    • Modern energy as driver for economic development
    • Modern energy supports key social services
    • Access to modern energy by maximum number of people
    • Multi-technology approach
    • Private sector led
  • Replaces “old paradigm”
    • Grid extension
    • “A bulb in each house”
energy for rural transformation
Energy for Rural Transformation
  • Use modern energy sources to promote productive end-uses such as agro-business, SMEs, and commercial ventures in and near rural areas
  • Increase access to modern energy services in key rural service areas such as health, education, water, communication, etc.
  • Rural Energy Agency/Fund plays facilitating role
    • stimulates and co-finance viable private sector investments in modern rural energy technologies.
    • “technology neutral”. All types of energy projects will be considered
    • RE is private sector-led
energy for rural transformation uganda
Energy for Rural Transformation Uganda
  • A number of flagship projects for rural electrification
  • These focus on different technologies and dissemination strategies
    • Preparation of Kakira Sugar Factory IPP
    • West Nile Hydro Power Project (World Bank)
    • Bushenyi & Rukungiri
    • Kasiizi Hospital Power Project
    • PV market development
  • Success? Not yet.