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Chapter 17 Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy. Our Manifest Destiny Is To Overspread the Continent Allotted By Providence For The Free Development Of Our Yearly Multiplying Millions…..John L. O’Sullivan (1845) from The United States Magazine and Democratic Review.

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Chapter 17 manifest destiny and its legacy
Chapter 17Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy

  • Our Manifest Destiny Is To Overspread the Continent Allotted By Providence For The Free Development Of Our Yearly Multiplying Millions…..John L. O’Sullivan (1845) from The United States Magazine and Democratic Review

Territorial expansion in the 1840s
Territorial Expansion in the 1840s

  • Oregon Territory (disputed with England…at one time with Russia / Spain)

  • Texas (disputed with Mexico)

  • California (disputed with Mexico)

  • Issues of expansion of slavery emerge with Manifest Destiny….splits political parties then the Union

The presidential administration of the whig william henry harrison
The Presidential Administration of the Whig William Henry Harrison

Harrison served 39 days as President

And “Tyler Too”

President John Tyler became President in 1841

Tyler a president without a party
Tyler A President without a Party Harrison

  • Tyler ran as a Whig VP but was really a Democrat (The Whig Party was pro-bank / tariffs / American system…Tyler disagreed)

  • Tyler vetoed Clay’s Fiscal Bank Bill and Fiscal Cooperation Bill…Whigs expel Tyler from Whig Party, call him his “Executive Ass” and “His Accidency”. Tyler did sign Tariff of 1842 (32% dutiable goods tax)

  • Entire holdover Harrison Whig Cabinet (except Daniel Webster) resigns

Anglo american relations
Anglo-American Relations Harrison

  • War of the Poison Pen or Third War with England (what culture was better? / better economics?…England creditor nation / America borrower nation

  • 1837 Caroline Affair… American filibusters had aided Canadian rebels…British had responded by destroying the American ship the Caroline. Canadian McLeod put on trial in New York for incident. Found not guilty but England outraged.

  • American slave ship Creole, which had witnessed a successful slave munity, offered asylum in British Bahamas

Anglo american relations cont
Anglo-American relations (cont) Harrison

  • Aroostook Valley War. Land dispute in Maine between Canadian and Maine lumberjacks.

Webster ashburton treaty
Webster Ashburton Treaty Harrison

  • Secretary of State Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton from England would reconcile Anglo-American differences

Daniel Webster

Webster ashburton treaty1
Webster Ashburton Treaty Harrison

  • In 1842 Treaty boundary areas near Maine and Minnesota established.

  • Caroline Affair patched up by an exchange of diplomatic notes

Annexing the lone star of texas
Annexing the Lone Star of Texas Harrison

  • A precarious peace existed with Mexico

  • England and France both wanted a diplomatic relationship with Texas to check the Manifest Destiny of America. England especially wanted to keep America bottled up because of the Oregon Territory dispute, Texas could serve as an abolitionist catalyst, and produce cotton.

The belated texas nuptials
The Belated Texas Nuptials Harrison

  • After the Manifest Destiny victory of James K. Polk in 1844, John Tyler annexed Texas during his Lame Duck period. Resolution passed by joint resolution. Conscience Whigs were appalled, Cotton Whigs and Expansionist Democrats cried Texas or Disunion.

Oregon fever
Oregon Fever Harrison

  • Oregon Territory at one timed claimed by Britain, France and Russia. Secretary of State John Q. Adams negotiated the 1824 Russo-American treaty which eliminated Russia from area, and 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty that eliminated Spain from area. Convention of 1818, Convention of 1828 and Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with England had discussed 49 parallel as possible boarder solution. In fact 10 and 20 year joint occupancy clauses were set up with Britain with 1818 / 1828 Treaties. (sharing Oregon)

American and british claims to area
American and British claims to area Harrison

  • British claims centered on exploration , colonization and Hudson Bay Company fur trading company area.

  • Americans had claims based on Robert Grey’s discovery of Columbia River, Lewis and Clarke expedition, missionaries on Oregon Trail (Francis and Narcissa Whitman) , and settlers in area by way of Oregon Trail. “Oregon fever” resulted in the British being outnumbered roughly 7-1.

1844 presidential election
1844 Presidential Election Harrison

  • Democrats nominate Darkhorse candidate James K. Polk. Called “Young Hickory”. Platform called for “Reannexation of Texas” “Reoccupation of Oregon” ,“54-40 or fight”

  • Whigs nominated Henry Clay. Shouted “Hooray for Clay” and “Polk, Slavery, and Texas or Clay, Union and Liberty”. Because Clay lost New York (Liberty Party 3rd party candidate took votes from Clay) , Polk won election of 1844.

Polk the purposeful four point plan
Polk the Purposeful HarrisonFour Point Plan

  • Walker Tariff of 1842…reduced rates to 25%.

  • Reestablished an Independent Treasury in 1846.

  • Settled Oregon issue / settled California expansion issues. (Remember Texas already annexed three days before Polk took office)

Inauguration of President Polk

Settling oregon
Settling Oregon Harrison

  • Southern Democrats had no desire to fight for “All of Oregon”.

  • “Little Englanders” (British anti-expansionists) did not want to fight over Oregon.

  • Result was 1846 Oregon Treaty which declared 49 parallel as boarder between Canada (England) and America.

Misunderstandings with mexico
Misunderstandings with Mexico Harrison

  • Mexico owed US citizens 3 million in claims.

  • Nueces River v. Rio Grande as boarder claims.

  • Mexican government rebuked American foreign minister John Slidell’s offer to buy California for 25 million.

  • Polk sent troops to disputed area between rivers.

Jimmy polk s war
Jimmy Polk’s War Harrison

  • Based on Slidell’s rebuke , money owed and “American Blood Spilled on American Soil” Polk asked for Declaration of War from Congress. Got one!

  • Whig Congressman Abraham Lincoln urged Spot Resolution demanded exact Spot blood was spilled.

  • Anti-expansionist Whigs call Polk, Polk the “Mendacious”.

Spot Resolutions of Lincoln

Mastering mexico
Mastering Mexico Harrison

  • Americans quickly won battles at Santa Fe, led by General Stephen Watts Kearney.

  • The “Pathfinder of the West” John C. Fremont secured California from Mexico at Battle of Monterey (Cpt. John Sloat and US navy already in San Francisco Bay)

Mastering mexico1
Mastering Mexico Harrison

  • Old Rough and Ready Zachary Taylor captured Northern Mexico with Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847

  • Old Fuss and Feathers Winfield Scott pushed towards Mexico City after a marine landing at Vera Cruz

General Zachary Taylor

Treaty of guadalupe hildalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo Harrison

  • Negotiated by Nicholas Trist

  • For 18 million dollars (15 million plus US citizen claims against Mexico) America got Mexican Cession.

  • Treaty approved by Senate on 38-14 vote. Anti-Expansionist Whigs and “All of Mexico” Southerners both condemned treaty

Results of mexican american war
Results of Mexican American War Harrison

  • Death total about 13,000

  • Increased size of America dramatically

  • Training ground for Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant

  • Marine Corps , West Point and Naval Academy all got a boost

  • In Latin America cries of Yankee Imperialism and Colossus of the North

Mexican american war and the resultant land expansion leads to civil war
Mexican American War and the resultant land expansion leads to Civil War

Question arises over whether or not slavery should be allowed in new areas of Southwest

Wilmont Proviso stated no slavery in land won in Mexican American War (never passed Senate but thought was there)