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Integration of Chemical and Biological Engineering In The Undergraduate Curriculum: A Seamless Approach. Howard Saltsburg Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos Kyongbum Lee David Kaplan Gregory Botsaris Aurelie Edwards Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

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Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

Integration of Chemical and Biological Engineering In The Undergraduate Curriculum: A Seamless Approach

Howard Saltsburg Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos

Kyongbum Lee David Kaplan

Gregory Botsaris Aurelie Edwards

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

Tufts University

Medford MA

ASEE

18 March 2006


Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

The Need For Change Undergraduate Curriculum: A Seamless Approach

  • ChE paradigm useful for more than 100 years

  • Response to industry based on

  • commodity chemicals(20s), petroleum (30s),

  • polymers (40-70s), traditional pharmaceuticals

  • All mature industries- little growth

  • Chemical engineering is flexible

  • new technologies accommodated with same core material

  • Biotechnology is major new growth area

  • Chemical Engineering can play an important role


Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

  • Many complex chemical reactions and complex transport processes occur

  • A cell looks like a chemical plant

  • Chemical engineers routinely work with that type of system.


Animal cell a chemical factory
ANIMAL CELL: A CHEMICAL FACTORY Undergraduate Curriculum: A Seamless Approach

Animal Cell: A Chemical Factory


Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

How To Optimize Education To Take Advantage Of The Opportunity

  • Biology becomes an integral part of the curriculum

  • Enabling sciences go from the

    • Traditional three legs

  • Chemistry, Math, Physics

    • To four legs

  • Chemistry, Math, Physics, Biology

  • ( basic understanding of molecular and

  • cellular biology)

Some courses must be revised/altered/dropped to make room


Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

Molecular and Cellular Biology Opportunity

  • “Biology is complex chemistry that works”

  • Chemical engineers will not become biologists

  • Must understand molecular biology and cell structures

  • Molecular biology is insufficient to understand cell function

  • Interaction of components defines the system.

  • A systems approach is necessary

    • Welcome to chemical engineering

  • .


  • Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    The “Patch” Approach Opportunity

    • Problems in courses inadequate

      • Often disguise the real system problem by oversimplifying:

        • Kidney as simple separator

        • Body as pump and tubes

        • Liver as reactor

  • Modules as add-ons tend to be self-contained

    • Biological problems can be disconnected from the rest of the curriculum

  • Neither approach adds to the solution of a real problem Integrating the curriculum


  • Fermentor system as a patch
    Fermentor System as a Patch Opportunity

    LIQUID FEED

    KOH 5g/l

    LIQUID FEED

    LIQUID PRODUCTS

    Ethanol

    Sorbitol

    Glucose

    Fructose

    Byproducts

    Fermentor

    Zymomonas mobilis

    Yeast Extract 10g/l

    KH2PO4 1g/l

    MgSO4.7H2O .5g/l

    (NH4)2SO4 1g/l

    Glucose XgF g/l

    Fructose XfF g/l

    GASEOUS FEED

    Sterile Air 46.5 l/h


    Fermentor patch example as a generic system
    Fermentor Patch Example as a OpportunityGeneric System

    LIQUID FEED

    LIQUID FEED

    LIQUID PRODUCTS

    Reactor

    GASEOUS FEED


    Another patch example recycling in the liver co 2 2nh 4 urea and byproducts
    Another Patch Example OpportunityRecycling in the LiverCO2 + 2NH4+ = urea and byproducts

    INPUT FROM BLOOD

    RECYCLE

    STREAM

    LIVER

    OUTPUT


    Simple recycle with reaction methanol synthesis
    Simple Recycle With Reaction OpportunityMethanol Synthesis

    RECYCLE

    STREAM

    FEED CO, H2,N2

    REACTOR

    PRODUCT STREAM Methanol


    Liver functions
    LIVER FUNCTIONS Opportunity


    Urea recycling in kidney
    Urea Recycling in Kidney Opportunity

    EFFERENT BLOOD FLOW

    RENAL BLOOD FLOW

    GENERAL CIRCULATION

    GLOMERULAR CAPILLARIES

    FILTRATE

    RECYCLE STREAM

    WATER

    NEPHRON LOOPS

    URINE


    Separation with recycle
    Separation With Recycle Opportunity

    OUTPUT FLOW

    INPUT FLOW

    COLLECTOR

    PRIMARYSEPARATOR

    FILTRATE

    RECYCLE LSTREAM

    SOLVENT

    SEPARATOR

    WASTE




    Transport processes
    Transport Processes Opportunity


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Appropriate Approaches for Chemical Engineering Opportunity

    • Ground rule:

    • Since future “hot topics” are unknown, we do not want to destroy the traditional base as there is a fundamental intellectual core to the subject.

    • The biological and biomedical engineering approach is too narrow as they are derivatives of the chemical engineering core

    • Chemical engineers will not become molecular biologists but must understand it


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    The Seamless Approach Opportunity

    • A biological system is simply another system

    • Usual approach to problem solving by chemical engineers is applicable

    • Traditional approaches and material must be included

    • Students must be able to function in a wide variety of technical situations involving chemistry and biology

    • Students will work on both types of systems (biological and chemical) simultaneously in each core course

    • Similarities as well as differences can be exposed.

    • We develop an understanding of multiscale issues and systems.


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    The Thread Opportunity

    • Comparison between a biological system

      • cell, organ, organism and

      • traditional chemical plant (specialty, commodity) is examined in the first course.

    • Choice of the chemical system can introduce new material (polymers, semiconductors). .

    • Subsequent courses examine same systems with the detail appropriate to the new course material.

    • The content of the entire curriculum is connected

    • The overall program is brought into context.

    • Issues of scale and complexity are introduced naturally


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Term Projects ChBE 10 Opportunity

    Chemical Process Calculations

    • .

    • To what extent can the behavior of a biological cell (as a chemical manufacturing plant) be described by a series of unit operations comparable to those considered in traditional chemical industry.

    • You are to describe a traditional chemical process in terms of relevant unit operations and do the same type of analysis for a biological cell.. Then, compare the two analyses.

    • What are similarities and dissimilarities? What do you need to know to carry out such an analysis? Include both material and energy balance considerations. What is the role of thermodynamics in this discussion?


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Types of Cells Opportunity

    • Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms without nucleus (e.g. bacteria)

    • 1-10 microns,

    • very few cytoplasmic structures

    • Eukaryotes: organisms whose cells have membrane bound nuclei

    • that contain their genetic material, single cells to higher organisms

    • 10-100 microns

    • highly structured (intercellular membranes, cytoskeleton)

    • Archaea: prokaryotes often living in extreme environments

    • (geysers; alkaline, salty, or acid water)

    • Unusual biochemistry (CO2 to CH4; H2S to H2SO4)


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Projects 2003 Opportunity

    Biological Cell Type Chemical Process

    Archaea

    Prokaryote

    Eukaryote

    Archaea

    Procaryote

    Eucaryote

    Archaea

    Ammonia production

    Polyethylene

    Pennicillin

    Sulfuric Acid

    Crude Oil to Gasoline

    Ethanol

    Bakers Yeast


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF SULFURIC ACID PRODUCTION & ARCHAEAL CELLS

    NUCLEOID

    DNA + mRNA

    CYTOPLASM

    tRNA

    tRNA

    mRNA

    AMINO ACIDS

    GLUCOSE

    TRANSPORT

    PROTEIN

    H2S

    REACTION UNIT

    H2S + O2 H2SO4

    RIBOSOME

    ATP

    O2

    PROTEIN

    H2SO4

    H2SO4

    ENZYMES ADP

    INORGANIC P

    PLASMA MEMBRANE



    Student projects 2004
    Student Projects 2004 CELLS

    Ethanol production

    Biological: Zymomonas mobilis CP4

    Chemical(macro): Continous fermentation of corn mash with the product stream processed

    Ammonia Synthesis

    Biological ADS positive bacteria

    Chemical Haber process


    Fermentor system
    Fermentor System CELLS

    LIQUID FEED

    KOH 5g/l

    LIQUID FEED

    LIQUID PRODUCTS

    Ethanol

    Sorbitol

    Glucose

    Fructose

    Byproducts

    Fermentor

    Zymomonas mobilis

    Yeast Extract 10g/l

    KH2PO4 1g/l

    MgSO4.7H2O .5g/l

    (NH4)2SO4 1g/l

    Glucose XgF g/l

    Fructose XfF g/l

    GASEOUS FEED

    Sterile Air 46.5 l/h


    Macro bioprocessing
    Macro Bioprocessing CELLS

    CONDENSER

    GLUCOSE

    CO2 STRIPPER

    CORN MASH

    FERMENTOR

    BLOWER

    S T

    EAM

    CO2

    RECYCLE

    BACK FEED


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Details of Thread CELLS

    • As students proceed to the next course, they will take on a new “pair”, one previously studied in the previous class by another group.

    • To avoid a new start, the student team responsible for this previous study will tutor the new group just as they will be tutored for their new project

    • This insures teamwork and peer instruction

    • After three years, students will have seen a variety of chemical and biological systems. The sequence will form the thread connecting the components of the curriculum and placing it in context.


    Ammonia clearance from blood the reactor analysis
    Ammonia Clearance from Blood CELLSThe Reactor Analysis

    • Free ammonium ion (NH4+) is toxic at high concentrations

    • In the body, the liver removes NH4+ by forming urea (CO(NH2)2); this process is not an elementary reaction; it involves multiple enzyme-catalyzed steps.

    • Net stoichiometry:


    Rate law
    Rate Law CELLS

    • Simplified power-law approximation (assumes CO2 is in excess):


    Reaction order estimate from batch data
    Reaction Order Estimate from Batch Data CELLS

    Culture conditions: 10×106 cells/mL, 1 mL culture volume

    n = 1

    n = 2

    ka = 0.08 min-1

    Max rate:


    Cell mass requirement
    Cell Mass Requirement CELLS

    • Elimination of nitrogen through urine in average adult: 10 g/day

      • NH3 elimination: 12 g/day (assuming 100 % association with urea)

    Possible liver bioreactor perfusion configurations:

    Are there any limitations on bioreactor size and density (cell-to-volume ratio)?


    Caveats
    Caveats CELLS

    From a Molecular Biologist

    Shape counts

    Simple decomposition into units will not provide all answers

    From a Chemical Engineer

    Is this biology or what engineers think is biology ?


    Integration of chemical and biological engineering in the undergraduate curriculum a seamless approach 1335367

    Summary CELLS

    • A “ new” approach to integrating biology into chemical engineering based on a “threaded” curriculum is described

    • This approach provides integration of material over all four years coupling content with context

    • Students discover that they can learn new material not taught in courses even at the sophomore level

    • As we provide a general chemistry background, we also provide a general biology background

    • Details of curriculum development workshops on web

      • http://ase.tufts.edu/chemical//

      • Supported by an NSF Curriculum Planning Grant