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The role of IT Architecture in Active Loss Prevention. The questions to answer. What is an Architecture? What is an IT Architecture? What should an IT Architecture do? How do you develop an IT Architecture? What do we need? What is TOGAF? What else will we need?. What is this?.

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The role of IT Architecture in Active Loss Prevention


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    1. The role of IT ArchitectureinActive Loss Prevention The role of IT Architecture

    2. The questions to answer • What is an Architecture? • What is an IT Architecture? • What should an IT Architecture do? • How do you develop an IT Architecture? • What do we need? • What is TOGAF? • What else will we need? The role of IT Architecture

    3. What is this? An analogy An example of success An example of architecture leading to success The role of IT Architecture

    4. A few facts about the 747 • 9 February 1969 - flight of first 747-100 • Over 700 deliveries • Approximate price $200m each • Each has about 6,000,000 components • Fleet has logged more than 56 billion km. • Fleet has flown 3.6 billion people • Multiple cabin configurations • Most economy sections longerthan the flight of the Wright Flyer The role of IT Architecture

    5. Evolution • Constant evolution due to • Changing business demands • New technologies and materials • Changes from 747-100 to 747-400 • Cruise speed (Km/h) 895 912 • Range (Km) 8,760 13,570 • Takeoff weight (Kg) 333,400 412,775 • Passengers 452 524 • Engine thrust (Kg) 19,730 28,710 • Engine noise x x/2 The role of IT Architecture

    6. Example Stakeholder Viewpoints Operators Concerns Cost per seat Cost per ton mile Range Turn round time Ease of maintenance Time of maintenance Airport suitability Configuration flexibility Crew training ... ... The role of IT Architecture

    7. Designers Concerns Example Stakeholder Viewpoints Number of passengers Cargo volume Engine thrust Max fuel Takeoff weight Range Cruise speed Wing span Length Height Cabin width ... ... Operators Concerns The role of IT Architecture

    8. Maintenance Concerns Designers Concerns Concerns Production Concerns Insurance Concerns Concerns Concerns FAA Pilots Passengers Example Stakeholder Viewpoints Operators Concerns The role of IT Architecture

    9. Maintenance Concerns Designers Concerns Concerns Production Concerns Insurance Concerns Concerns Concerns FAA Pilots Passengers Example Stakeholder Viewpoints Operators Concerns The role of IT Architecture

    10. Maintenance Concerns Designers Concerns Concerns Production Concerns Insurance Concerns Concerns Concerns FAA Pilots Passengers Example Stakeholder Viewpoints Operators Concerns The role of IT Architecture

    11. Lessons to learn • Architecture depends on the characteristics derived from business requirements • 747 and Concorde are both aircraft • Specific models are designed within the Architecture • Configuration flexibility within models • Model flexibility within the Architecture • New materials, technologies and components used within constraints of the architecture • Architecture only changed as last resort • Driven by new business requirements or technology • (When does a 747 become a 777?) The role of IT Architecture

    12. What is an IT Architecture ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000 • The fundamental organization of a system, • embodied in its components, • their relationships • to each other • and the environment, • and the principles governing its design and evolution. The role of IT Architecture

    13. Some are designed andsome justhappen An IT Architecture is not optional Every enterprise already has an IT Architecture But it’s there and it affects the efficiency of the enterprise The role of IT Architecture

    14. So what should an IT Architecture do? A well-designed and effective IT Architecture will: • Be derived from business requirements • React to change at a rate dictated by the speed of change in the enterprise’s markets • Clearly define the structure of the existing system • Specify migration strategies • Set out the strategy for future purchases • Set out the strategy for future developments • Be understood and supported by senior management The role of IT Architecture

    15. Businessrequirements Standards Currentsystems Componentselection Technologytrends Investment decisions What should an IT Architecture do? (cont.) • Describe the Viewpoints of all stakeholders • Enable managers to use their IT investment to meet the needs of the business ITArchitecture The role of IT Architecture

    16. How do you develop an IT Architecture? • It is not possible to specify a single, universal architecture suitable for: • All purposes  At all times • There is a continuum of architectures • An architecture must be suited to its specific business purpose • That purpose may change with time • The skills of experienced architects are necessary • Their task can be eased by the support of design tools in the form of an architectural framework The role of IT Architecture

    17. What do we need? • A total, practical architectural solution TOGAF A good architectural framework Certification Tools Challenge Knowledgeable and professional practitioners Support tools at all levels The role of IT Architecture

    18. But where do you start? • There are many successful IT Architectures in use • Can you benefit from that accumulation of knowledge? • Can you examine in detail the IT Architecture of another organization? • Do you have to reinvent the wheel? • What reference material is available? • TOGAF exists and is freely available to answer these questions The role of IT Architecture

    19. What is TOGAF? • An architectural framework not an architecture • Vendor-neutral – developed by user consensus • TOGAF components • An Architecture Development Method (ADM) • Foundation Architecture • A Technical Reference Model (TRM) • A Standards Information Base (SIB) • Building Blocks Information Base (BBIB) • Resource Base • Architecture views · Business scenarios • Case studies · TABB The role of IT Architecture

    20. FoundationArchitecture More about TOGAF Target Architectures Architecture Development Method TechnicalReference Model (services) Standards Information Base (standards) Building Block Information Base (future) Business Requirements The role of IT Architecture

    21. GArchitecturemaintenance BBaselinedescription Requirements FImplementation CTargetarchitecture D Opportunities & solutions EMigrationoptions Architecture development • Start with a foundation architecture • Follow the phases of the ADM AInitiation &framework • Results in • an organization-specific architecture • more reusable building block assets in the Enterprise Continuum • Each iteration becomes easier and has more reusable building blocks to use The role of IT Architecture

    22. We have business scenarios 1 - Identify, document and rank the problem driving the scenario 2 - Identify business and technical environment where situation is occurring, and document in scenario models 3 - Identify and document desired objectives - the results of handling the problems successfully - get SMART 4 - Identify human actors, their roles, their place in the business model 5 - Identify computer actors (computing elements), their roles, their place in the technology model 6 - Identify and document roles, responsibilities, measures of success per actor 7 - Check for “fitness for purpose” and refine only if necessary 1 - problem 2 - environment 3 - objectives 4 - human actors 5 - computer actors 6 - roles & responsibilities 7 - refine The role of IT Architecture

    23. We have Architecture Viewpoints • Description of the architecture from the viewpoint of a specific stakeholder • The main mechanism of communication between the architect and the stakeholder • Used to ensure accuracy of understanding of the current and target systems • Used to ensure the architecture meets the need of each stakeholder • TOGAF’s list of views is only a recommendation The role of IT Architecture

    24. Current recommended Viewpoints • Business architecture views • To address the concerns of users • Technical architecture views • Engineering views • To address the concerns of System and Software Engineers • Operations views • To address the concerns of Operators, Administrators and Managers • Acquirers’ views • To address the concerns of Acquirers The role of IT Architecture

    25. API Software Engineering Security Sys & Net Management Transaction Processing Location & Directory User Interface International Operations Data Interchange Data Management Graphics & Image ApplicationPlatformServices Network Services EEI We have a Technical Reference Model Infrastructure Applications Business Application Application Program Interface Service Qualities Application Platform Communications Infrastructure Interface Operating System Services Communication Infrastructure The role of IT Architecture

    26. We have Service Qualities • Availability • Manageability, Serviceability, Performance, Reliability • Adaptability • Scalability, Programmability, Extensibility • Interoperability • Locatability • Usability • International operation • Assurance • Security, Recoverability, Integrity, Credibility The role of IT Architecture

    27. TOGAF - its key benefits (1) • Vendor-Neutral • Comprehensive - from business requirements to applications to infrastructure • The result of 8 years of global development • Cuts up-front costs - avoids re-inventing the wheel • Support for Quick-Start learning curves • Insurance against departure of key staff • Refined and honed checklists at all levels - from business requirements to physical components The role of IT Architecture

    28. TOGAF - its key benefits (2) • The Standards Information Base • Maintained, current and comprehensive • The Building Block Information Base is being developed • TOGAF is available today • TOGAF is free today for your own use • You can participate in shaping the evolution of TOGAF The role of IT Architecture

    29. Enhancements for active loss prevention • New stakeholder viewpoints • Legal? • Audit? • Government? • Insurance? • New qualities for the TRM? • ... The role of IT Architecture

    30. The questions to answer • What is an Architecture? • What is an IT Architecture? • What should an IT Architecture do? • How do you develop an IT Architecture? • What do we need? • What is TOGAF? • What else will we need? The role of IT Architecture