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SUBSTANCE ABUSE: Commonly Abused Drugs PowerPoint Presentation
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SUBSTANCE ABUSE: Commonly Abused Drugs

SUBSTANCE ABUSE: Commonly Abused Drugs

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SUBSTANCE ABUSE: Commonly Abused Drugs

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  1. SUBSTANCE ABUSE:Commonly Abused Drugs Ms. Mai Lawndale High School

  2. 4 Categories of Psychoactive Drugs • Based on their effects on the mind and body, psychoactive drugs are classified into 4 major categories 1. Stimulants 2. Depressants 3. Narcotics 4. Hallucinogens

  3. Some Other Drugs • There are also 3 other types of drugs that have effects similar to the 4 major ones 5. Cannabis 6. Inhalants 7. Designer Drugs • Lastly, we will also be discussing steroids, which is not a psychoactive drug, but is often abused

  4. 1. Stimulants • Drugs (nickname) • Legal - nicotine and caffeine • Illegal • amphetamine (speed, uppers) • methamphetamine (ice, glass, crystal meth) • cocaine (coke, snow, crack) • Physical Effects – stimulate or speed up nerve activity (increased energy and heart rate, loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping)

  5. Stimulants continued… • Psychological Effects – euphoria, increased alertness, depression, paranoia, hallucinations • Effects of Overdose – extreme nervousness, hallucinations, paranoia, heart and lung failure, coma death • Withdrawal Symptoms – lack of interest in normal activities, fatigue, irritability, depression, mental confusion

  6. Amphetamines • Makes users feel more energetic and alert, and euphoric (state of happiness) • One side effect is a loss of appetite, so doctors used to prescribe this drug for short periods of time to help people lose weight • In large amounts, amphetamines can make people feel paranoid

  7. Methamphetamine • Produces euphoria that lasts 12 to 24 hours (during this time, user cannot sleep and has no appetite) • Was also used legally for weight loss • Users become paranoid, aggressive, and violent • Can cause permanent damage to the brain and body

  8. Cocaine • White powder made from leaves of the South American coca plant • Sometimes used as anesthesia in nose and throat surgery • Highly addictive and causes serious physical and psychological problems • Cocaine’s effects are felt quickly, but do not last very long

  9. Meth and Crack Video

  10. 2. Depressants • Drugs (nicknames) • Legal – alcohol • Illegal • barbiturates (downers) • tranquilizers • methaqualone (ludes, sopers) • Physical Effects – depresses or slow down nerve activity (decreased heart rate and breathing, sleepiness, poor coordination, blurred vision, slow reaction)

  11. Depressants continued… • Psychological Effects – calmness, reduced anxiety, low alertness, mood changes, impaired reasoning • Effects of Overdose – shallow breathing, cold skin, weak, weak heartbeat, coma, death • Withdrawal Symptoms – restlessness, nausea, blurred vision, difficulty sleeping, trembling, convulsions

  12. Barbiturates • Strong depressants that are prescribed to relax people or help them sleep • After addicted, people cannot fall asleep without the use of barbiturates • Barbiturates cause mental confusion, so users take accidental overdose • When combined with alcohol, it can cause the user to stop breathing

  13. Tranquilizers • People who suffer from anxiety may be treated medically with tranquilizers • Also dangerous when combined with alcohol and causes hundreds of fatal drug overdoses every year

  14. Methaqualone • Produces sudden rush of euphoria • Physical and psychological dependence develops very quickly • Side effects include headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness, and diarrhea • High risk of fatal overdose when combined with alcohol

  15. 3. Narcotics • Drugs (nickname) • codeine (school boy) • opium (blue velvet, back stuff) • morphine (white stuff, morf) • heroin (horse, smack, junk) • Physical Effects – strong painkiller that produces a relaxed state (pain relief, decreased heart rate and breathing, nausea, vomiting, constipation, slurred speech, poor coordination)

  16. Narcotics continued… • Psychological Effects – euphoria, relaxation, inability to concentrate, lack of interest and response, hunger • Effects of Overdose – constricted pupils, slow breathing, coma, death • Withdrawal Symptoms – flu-like symptoms, runny nose, chills, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, muscle twitching, irritability

  17. Codeine • Least potent narcotic prescribed for mild pain and used in some cough medicine • Codeine can be abused because it produces a state of euphoria • Codeine is not as addictive as other narcotics, but sill causes physical and psychological dependence

  18. Opium • Stronger narcotic that may be prescribed to relieve pain or control diarrhea • Produces an initial rush of euphoria followed by a prolonged dreamy state • Highly addictive and causes severe withdrawal symptoms

  19. Morphine • One of the strongest known painkillers • Extremely addictive, so it is strictly limited for medical use (post-surgery or cancer patients) • Abused for its euphoric effects with severed withdrawal symptoms

  20. Heroin • White powder made from morphine, but is more potent because it acts quicker • Prohibited from medical use in US because it is extremely addictive • Most widely abused narcotic in the US • Heroin dulls the senses for hours, but addicts must take several doses each day to avoid withdrawal symptoms • High risk of hepatitis and AIDS

  21. 4. Hallucinogens • Drugs (nickname) • LSD (acid) • mescaline (DOM, STP, TMA, MMDA) • PCP (angel dust) • Physical Effects – distort users perceptions of their surroundings and their own bodies (dilated pupils, increased or decreased heart rate and body temperature, perspiration, muscle twitching, aggression, insensitive to pain)

  22. Hallucinogens continued… • Psychological Effects – euphoria, extreme fear, hallucinations, distorted senses, mental confusion, flashbacks • Effects of Overdose – panic, mental confusion, severe mental illness, violent behavior, convulsion, coma, death • Withdrawal Symptoms – none known

  23. LSD • Lysergic acid diethylamide is extremely powerful and causes vivid and strange visions called “trips” that can last hours • During a “trip,” users may become terrified and believe they are in danger • Weeks or months after a use, users may experience flashbacks

  24. Mescaline • Psychoactive substance found in peyote (type of cactus grown in southwestern US and northern Mexico) • Used in religious ceremonies and spiritual practices of the Native American Church of North America • When eaten, it produces nausea and vomiting, then visions • Highly toxic in even small amounts

  25. PCP • Phencyclidine was originally developed for human surgical anesthesia, but now is restricted to anesthesia for animals • PCP’s effects can last for 3-4 days • Can make users feel tipsy, confused, aggressive and violent • Users seem awake, but do not talk and have little sense of pain

  26. LSD-acid Video

  27. 5. Cannabis (Indian hemp plant) • Drugs (nickname) • Marijuana (pot, grass, dope, weed, mary jane) • hashish (hash) • Physical Effects – increased heart rate and appetite, red eyes, dry mouth and throat, lung damage (similar effects as stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens)

  28. Cannabis continued… • Psychological Effects – mild euphoria, relaxed inhibition, difficulty concentrating, impaired memory • Effects of Overdose – fatigue, paranoia, panic, mental confusion, distorted perceptions resembling mental illness • Withdrawal Symptoms – irritability, restlessness, difficulty sleeping

  29. Marijuana • Most widely used illegal drug in the US because many users think it is harmless • Made from dried and shredded leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant • Usually smoked and its effects felt within minutes and may last for hours • Similar health effects of tobacco, but worse because it contains more dangerous chemicals

  30. Marijuana continued… • Marijuana interferes with the mental development of teenagers and young adults (impairs memory and concentration with difficulty learning) • THC is the active ingredient in marijuana and has been legal since 1986 for chemotherapy patients • Some people have been working to convince the government to reclassify marijuana as Category 2 instead of 1 so that it can be used for medical purposes

  31. Hashish • Oily liquid taken from the cannabis plant that has more intense effects than marijuana because its more concentrated • More expensive than marijuana, so it is less widely used in the US

  32. Marijuana Video

  33. 6. Inhalants • Drugs (nicknames) • amyl nitrite (locker room, rush, poppers) • nitrous oxide (laughing gas) • household products (glue, paint thinner, lighter fluid) • Physical Effects – produce euphoria when inhaled (dizziness, headaches, slurred speech, slowed reaction time, poor coordination, similar to depressants)

  34. Inhalants continued… • Psychological Effects – giddiness, euphoria, mental confusion, impaired judgment, aggression, hallucinations • Effects of Overdose – heart or lung failure, suffocation, unconscious, coma • Withdrawal Symptoms – not known

  35. Prescription Drugs • At one time, amyl nitrite were commonly prescribed for heart patients to relieve chest pain, while nitrous oxide was used by dentists as a painkiller • These drugs make people feel relaxed and giddy, but can cause dizziness, nausea, and severe headaches

  36. Household Products • Many household products give off fumes with psychoactive effects • These inhalants attract teenagers because they are cheap and produce a rapid, intense high • Long-term use of these products can cause permanent damage to your body

  37. Inhalants Video

  38. 7. Designer Drug • Designer drugs are new chemical combinations that are created to imitate the effects of controlled drugs • The most common types of designer drugs imitate stimulants, narcotics, and hallucinogens • For example, ecstasy imitates the effects of amphetamines and LSD • Can cause more damage for they are more powerful and less predictable

  39. Shrooms-Ecstasy Video

  40. 8. Steroids • Steroids are laboratory-made drugs that function like the male hormone testosterone to increase muscle mass • Steroids may be prescribed for young people who are not growing normally • Steroids are not considered psychoactive drugs, but have stimulant-like effects for some users because it makes them feel good about building muscle

  41. Steroids continued • Physical Effects – increased muscle mass and calcium in bones • Psychological Effects – stimulant-like high, increased energy and aggressiveness, possibly violent • Long-term Risks – mental disorders, liver damage, infertility, acne, baldness, reduced sperm production for men, increased facial hair for women

  42. Steroids Continued • Withdrawal Symptoms – depression, mood changes • Steroids do not make people stronger, but makes muscles bulkier because there is more muscle tissue to work with