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Commonly Abused Drugs. Depressants. A psychoactive drug that slows brain and body reactions is called a depressant. Depressants slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure. Depressants- Barbiturates. Barbiturate are also called sedative-hypnotics
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Depressants A psychoactive drug that slows brain and body reactions is called a depressant. Depressants slow body functions by decreasing heart and breathing rates and lowering blood pressure.
Depressants- Barbiturates Barbiturate are also called sedative-hypnotics Small doses barbiturates are sedatives- they relax a person High doses barbiturates are hypnotics- they induce sleep High potential for abuse Abusers walk slowly, slur their speech, and react more slowly to their environment. Withdrawal can be fatal
GHB Gamma Hydroxybutyrate: GHB; G; Liquid X; Liquid E; GBH; Gamma-oh; Blue Verve GHB is most notorious for a few cases where it has been given to unsuspecting individuals, it is more commonly used as a recreational intoxicant like alcohol, as a sleep-aid, or as a supplement by body-builders One of the major concerns with GHB is that the recreational dosage range is narrow and even small overdoses can cause temporary unrousable unconsciousness (a type of coma) and large overdoses (poisonings) can be life-threatening.
GHB GHB is illegal to possess or sell in the United States. It became schedule I (federally) in March, 2000 though it was scheduled in many states between 1997 and 1999. GHB was developed in the early 60s as a human anesthetic, but was discontinued due to unwanted side effects. It's use as a sleep aid and body building supplement in the 80s and as a recreational psychoactive in the 90s led to it being scheduled in the U.S. in March of 2000.
CNS Depressants A CNS depressant is a sedative that slows the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). This class of drugs used to be called tranquilizers Slow nerve activity, relax muscle tension, lower alertness, and cause drowsiness. Doctors may prescribe CNS depressants to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, muscle spasms, and convulsions. Long-Term Abuse: blood and liver disease
Depressants-Opiates An opiate is any drug made from psychoactive compounds contained in the seed pods of poppy plants. Some opiates can be produced in a laboratory. In small doses, opiates act to dull the senses, relieve pain, and induce sleep. Morphine and codeine, for example, are used in some prescriptions medications to reduce severe pain.
Depressants- Opiates There is a growing concern in the use of opiate-containing painkillers or cough syrups for a “high.” Larger than recommended doses Dangerous or life-threatening side effects Heroin is an illegal opiate made from morphine in a laboratory Heroin is highly addictive
Stimulants A stimulant is a drug that speeds up activities of the central nervous system. Stimulants increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and alertness. Prescribed to treat sleep disorders and behavioral disorders such as ADD and ADHD
Stimulants-Amphetamines Are a prescription drug that are sometimes sold illegally as “speed” or “uppers.” Produces feelings of well-being and high energy. Effects wear off quickly and user feels depressed. The “down” often leads to taking another- and another-dose.
Stimulants-Methamphetamine Even more powerful than Amphetamines. AKA: Meth, Crank, Crystal or Ice Produces a rush or high After drug wears off the user may become shaky, confused, anxious, irritable or violent. Meth users ultimately become paranoid and psychotic due to brain damage. Meth may also cause strokes and deadly convulsions.
Stimulants- Cocaine Powerful but short acting stimulant Abusers sniff drug into nose, smoke it, or inject it directly into their bloodstream Highly addictive, tolerance develops quickly Users often experience depression when coming “down” Overdose of cocaine, which can be caused by even a small amount, may result in seizures, heart failure, or respiratory failure. Overdose can be fatal
Stimulants- Crack A process known as “free-basing” changes cocaine into a concentrated, smokable form known as “crack.” Strongest form of cocaine Short but powerful effects produced by crack occur within eight seconds after it is smoked.
Hallucinogens Are drugs that distort perception, thought, and mood. Hallucinogens overload the brain with sensory information, causing a distorted sense of reality. Illegal and have no medical use. Frightening and unpredictable mood swings, abusers cannot tell what is real, memory loss and personality changes.
Hallucinogens- LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: LSD or Acid It can either stimulate or depress the CNS User may see colorful visions Can have frightening episodes known as “bad trips.” User may have a “flashback” – unexpected reoccurrence of a bad trip May happen years later
Hallucinogens- Psilocybin AKA: Mushrooms or Shrooms Chemical found in certain mushrooms Ingested Effects are similar to LSD but not as strong Similar-looking but deadly mushroom is sometimes mistaken for psilocybin. In 1968 possession of psilocybin mushrooms was made illegal in the United States.
Hallucinogens- PCP Phencyclidine: PCP or Angel Dust Once used as an anesthetic, or painkiller for large animals. Only available illegally now. Users may smoke it with marijuana, inject, sniff or eat it. Eliminates pain, users may injure or kill themselves unintentionally Some abusers develop schizophrenia Effects remain log after drug use ends, flashbacks may occur
MDMA Ecstasy Psychedelic Amphetamine- Stimulant/Hallucinogen MDMA was first synthesized in the 1890s and later patented by Merck pharmaceuticals on December 24, 1912, but it wasn't until the mid 1970s that articles related to its psychoactivity began showing up in scholarly journals. In the late '70s and early '80s MDMA was used as a psychotherapeutic tool and also started to become available on the street. Its growing popularity led to it being made illegal in the United States in 1985 and its popularity has continued to increase since then.
MDMA Ecstasy Many users also experience some level of post-MDMA depression, often starting on the second day after the experience and lasting for up to 5 days. Negative effects can include overheating, nausea, vomiting, jaw-clenching, eye-twitching, and dizziness, as well as depression and fatigue in following days. After frequent or heavy use, some users report bouts of dizziness or vertigo which gradually subside after cessation of use.
Marijuana The leaves, stems, and flowering tops of the hemp plant. AKA: Pot, weed, dope or grass Smoked in a “joint” or “blunt”, mixed with food and eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil.
Marijuana Both sales and possession of cannabis are illegal in the United States and most countries, however many states have legalized the medical use of cannabis. Additionally, some states have decriminalized the possession of personal use quantities (under 1/2 - 1 ounce) choosing to punish this with a fine rather than jail time.
Marijuana- Medical Marijuana has many possible medical uses. Positive effects are claimed for ailments such as cancer, AIDS, and glaucoma. AIDS can cause a loss of appetite known as the "wasting syndrome" which can lead to drastic weight loss and weakness. Chemotherapy used in the treatment of cancer causes nausea resulting in an inability to keep down food. Marijuana's healing nature for these two illnesses is a result of it's ability to increase a person's appetite as well as relieving nausea allowing a patient to regain weight. Marijuana reportedly helps glaucoma patients by reducing occular pressure which can cause damage to the eye.
Marijuana- History The cannabis plant has been used both medicinally and recreationally for thousands of years. It wasn't until the early 19th century that the use of cannabis spread from China and the Middle East to the population of Europe and then to America in the middle of the century. Cannabis was made illegal in the U.S. in 1937.
Effects of Marijuana It is one of the most frequently abused psychoactive drugs. It’s main ingredient changes the way information reaches and is acted upon by the brain. Side effects can include: distorted perception- sights, sounds, time and touch. Difficulties thinking and problem solving Loss of motor coordination, increased heart rate, feeling of anxiety or paranoia May damage short-term memory