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Cellular Structure. Cell Biology / Genetics Mr. Foster. Components of Cells. Nucleus - 2. Outer Boundary- 3. Cytoplasm / Organelles - cellular contents and specialized structures that carry out functions of the cell. Nucleus. Prokaryote - cell w/o nucleus (DNA in neucleoid)

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cellular structure

Cellular Structure

Cell Biology / Genetics

Mr. Foster

components of cells
Components of Cells
  • Nucleus-

2. Outer Boundary-

3. Cytoplasm/Organelles- cellular contents and specialized structures that carry out functions of the cell

  • Prokaryote- cell w/o nucleus
    • (DNA in neucleoid)
  • Eukaryote- cell with nucleus
  • Functions
    • Contains genetic inform.
    • Control Center- directs all cellular activity
nucleus cont
Nucleus (cont.)
  • Structure / Components-
    • Nuclear envelope- regulate what enters and leaves nucleus (Nuclear pores)
    • Nucleolus-makes ribosomes
    • Genetic Material- DNA
      • Chromatin – DNA uncoiled, threadlike, Not Divisional
      • Chromosomes –DNA is condensed, Divisional
    • Nucleoplasm -fluid inside nucleus

Clicker ?’s 1-5

outer boundary
Outer Boundary
  • Cell membrane-lipid bilayer with embedded proteins forming a selective boundary
  • All cells have a cell membrane
  • Cell wall –

Plants and bacteria

cell membrane cont
Cell Membrane (cont.)
  • Structure- Fluid Mosaic Model
    • Phospholipids
      • Phospholipid bilayer

forms membrane

Phosphate- likes H2O (hydrophilic)

Lipid- does not like H2O (hydrophobic)

cell membrane cont7
Cell Membrane (cont.)
  • Structure (cont.)

2. Proteins

Integral Proteins - embedded in phospholipid bilayer

Peripheral protein –

not embedded in bilayer

Clicker ?’s 6-9

cell membrane cont8
Cell Membrane (cont.)
  • Structure (cont.)

3. Carbohydrates - attach to proteins (glycoprotein) or lipids (glycolipid)

Cell communication –

recognize cell type

cell membrane cont9
Cell Membrane (cont.)
  • Structure (cont.)

4. Cytoskeleton –supports the membrane

a. microfilaments -strength, anchor cells

b. microtubules – mvmt.

c. intermediate filaments –not always present, a lot in skin, strong framework

(Disease where cells collapse: pg 31)


Clicker ?’s 10-13

  • Functions
    • Support and protect cell
    • Communicate with other cells
    • Controls mvmt. of materials in and out of cell.
      • Selectively Permeable
cell transport
Cell Transport
  • Passive – energy not required to move material across membrane
    • Diffusion – molecules move from high to low concentration to reach equilibrium
    • Osmosis – type of diffusion involving H2O molecules only
cell transport cont
Cell Transport (cont.)
  • Active – Energy required to move materials across membrane

Low to High concentration

    • Ion pumps/Channels- Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca+
    • Endocytosis / Exocytosis –

membrane forms pockets to

move material

endocytosis exocytosis
Endocytosis / Exocytosis

Clicker ?’s 14-17

cytoplasm organelles
Cytoplasm / Organelles
  • Cytoplasm – space between nucleus and cell membrane
    • Cytosol – semitransparent; jellylike substance that surrounds organelles
  • Organelles – “little organ”
Endoplasmic Reticulum-

Transports materials through inside of cell

Modifies proteins and quality control center

Types of ER

Rough ER

Has ribosome attached

Proteins to be sent outside cell

Smooth ER

No ribosomes

Make lipids, detox cell

Smooth or Rough?

organelles cont

Synthesize proteins

Free vs. attached

Organelles (cont.)
organelles cont18
Organelles (cont.)
  • Mitochondria
    • Provides energy for the cell ATP
      • Cellular respiration
    • Own DNA
    • Endosymbiont Theory
      • Free living organism that

entered a relationship w/

Nucleated cells

    • Inherited from mother only
    • Folds increase surface


organelles cont19
Golgi Apparatus - (Golgi bodies) modifies, sorts, and ships proteins in packages called vesicles.

Clicker ? 18-22

What is this?

Organelles (cont.)
organelles cont20

Membrane bounded sacs that contain enzymes

Clean up cell

Lysosomal Storage disease

(Tay Sachs)- missing the

enzyme that breaks down the

lipid that surrounds the nerve


Buries the nervous system

Organelles (cont.)
organelles cont22
Organelles (cont.)
  • Peroxisomes
    • Sac that contain enzymes

that detoxifies harmful


    • H2O2 H2O
    • Alcohol
    • Abundant in liver cells
organelles cont23

Clicker ? 23-26

Organelles (cont.)
  • Centrioles
    • Composed of microtubules
    • Contained in specialized

region = centrosome

    • Function in cell division
      • Organize spindle fibers