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ELC 200

ELC 200. Day 4. Agenda . Questions from last Class? Assignment One is Due Assignment two posted to WebCT Due Feb 9 Discussion Chap 2 E-Commerce Market Mechanisms. Assignment 2. Provide one paragraph (more than 100 but less than 200 words) describing your business idea.

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ELC 200

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  1. ELC 200 Day 4 Prentice Hall, 2003

  2. Agenda • Questions from last Class? • Assignment One is Due • Assignment two posted to WebCT • Due Feb 9 • Discussion Chap 2 • E-Commerce Market Mechanisms Prentice Hall, 2003

  3. Assignment 2 • Provide one paragraph (more than 100 but less than 200 words) describing your business idea. • Describe the specific marketplace components in your proposed business in some detail. Stating you will have customers (or sellers, partners, front end, etc) is insufficient; you will need to describe each component you have identified. • Describe the supply chain and how it operates in your proposed business. • Could your business implement some form of dynamic pricing? Why or Why not? Which of the dynamic pricing models (pages 69-76) listed in the text would work best for your business? • How will your business maintain competitive advantage? Use Porter‘s five forces model for your analysis and describe how each of the five forces impacts your business. See http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_fivefoces.htm for more info Prentice Hall, 2003

  4. Chapter 2 E-Commerce Market Mechanisms Prentice Hall, 2003

  5. Learning Objectives • Define e-marketplaces and list their components • List the major types of electronic markets and describe their features • Define supply chains and value chains and understand their roles • Describe the role of intermediaries in EC • Discuss competition, quality, and liquidity issues in e-marketplaces • Describe electronic catalogs, shopping carts, and search engines Prentice Hall, 2003

  6. Learning Objectives (cont.) • Describe the various types of auctions and list their characteristics • Discuss the benefits, limitations, and impacts of auctions • Describe bartering and negotiating online • Describe the impact of e-marketplaces on organizations • Define m-commerce and explain its role as a market mechanism Prentice Hall, 2003

  7. How Raffles Hotel is Conducting E-Commerce • The Problem • The company’s success depends on the its ability to lure customers to its hotels and facilities and on its ability to contain costs. • Solution • Business-to-consumer—maintains a public portal (raffles.com) that includes: • Information on the hotels • Reservation system • Links to travelers’ resources • Customer relationship management (CRM) program • Online store for Raffles products Prentice Hall, 2003

  8. Raffles Hotel (cont.) • Business-to-business—maintains an interorganizational systems that enable efficient contacts with its suppliers • The e-marketplace also has a sell-side, allowing other hotels to buy Raffles-branded products from electronic catalogs (bathrobes) • Competitors buy Raffles-branded products because they are inexpensive, but look upscale Prentice Hall, 2003

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  10. Raffles Hotel (cont.) • The Results • Public portal helps in customer acquisition • Hotel is able to maintain high occupancy rates using: • Promotions • Direct sales Prentice Hall, 2003

  11. Raffles Hotel (cont.) • The private marketplace is strategically advantageous: • Raffles in forcing suppliers to disclose their prices, thus increasing competition among suppliers • Raffles is saving about $1 million a year on procurement of eight high-volume supplies; more savings on other products • Success is evident in its aggressive expansion in the Asian markets Prentice Hall, 2003

  12. Markets facilitate exchange of Information Goods Services Payments Markets create economic value (incentive) for Buyers Sellers Market intermediaries Society at large Electronic Marketplaces Prentice Hall, 2003

  13. Electronic Marketplaces (cont.) • 3 main functions of markets • Matching buyers and sellers • Facilitating the exchange of information, goods, services, and payments associated with market transactions • Providing an institutional infrastructure Prentice Hall, 2003

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  15. NTE Evens the Load • National Transportation Exchange (nte.com) is attempting to keep trucks on the road full on both outbound and return trips—uses the Internet to connect shippers with fleet managers who have space to fill • Creates a spot market • Gets information from shippers about their needs and flexibility in dates • Works out the best deals for the shippers and the haulers • Issues the contract and handles payments • The process takes only a few minutes Prentice Hall, 2003

  16. NTE Evens the Load (cont.) • NTE collects a commission based on the value of each deal • Fleet manager gets extra revenue that they would otherwise have missed out on • The shipper gets a bargain price, at the cost of some loss of flexibility • NTE reaches down to the level of individual truck drivers and provides a much wider range of services (wireless Internet access) Prentice Hall, 2003

  17. Marketspace Components • Marketspace—a marketplace in which sellers and buyers exchange goods and services for money (or for other goods and services), but do so electronically • Customers • Goods (physical or digital) • Front-end • Intermediaries/business partners • Support services • Sellers • Infrastructure • Back-end Prentice Hall, 2003

  18. Customers Web surfers looking for Bargains customized items Collectors’ items entertainment etc. Organizations account for over 85 percent of EC activities Sellers Hundreds of thousands of storefronts are on the Web Advertising and offering millions of Web sites Sellers can sell Direct from their Web site E-marketplaces Marketspace Components (cont.) Prentice Hall, 2003

  19. Products Physical products Digital products—goods that can be transformed to digital format and delivered over the Internet Infrastructure Hardware Software Networks Marketspace Components (cont.) Prentice Hall, 2003

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  21. Front-end business processes include Seller’s portal Electronic catalogs Shopping cart Search engine Payment gateway Back-end activities are related to Order aggregation and fulfillment Inventory management Purchasing from suppliers Payment processing Packaging and delivery Marketspace Components (cont.) Prentice Hall, 2003

  22. Marketspace Components (cont.) • Intermediary—a third party that operates between sellers and buyers • Other business partners—collaborate on the Internet, mostly along the supply chain • Support services such as • Certification and trust services • Knowledge providers Prentice Hall, 2003

  23. Types of Electronic Markets • Electronic storefronts—a single company’s Web site where products and services are sold • Mechanisms for conducting sales • Electronic catalogs • Search engine • Customer services • E-auction facilities • Electronic malls (e-malls)—an online shopping center where many stores are located • Electronic cart • Payment gateway • Shipment court Prentice Hall, 2003

  24. General stores/malls—large marketspaces that sell all types of products Public portals Specialized stores/malls—sell only one or a few types of products Regional vs. global stores Pure online organizations vs. click-and-mortar stores Types of Electronic Markets (cont.) • Types of stores and malls • E-marketplaces—online market, usually B2B, in which buyers and sellers negotiate; the three types of e-marketplaces are private , public , consortia Prentice Hall, 2003

  25. E-Marketplaces • Private e-marketplaces—online markets owned by a single company: • Sell-side—company sells either standard or customized products to qualified companies • Buy-side marketplaces—company makes purchases from invited suppliers • Public e-marketplaces—B2B markets, usually owned and/or managed by an independent third party, that include many sellers and many buyers (exchanges) Prentice Hall, 2003

  26. Consortia & Information Portals • Consortia—e-marketplaces that deal with suppliers and buyers in a single industry • Vertical consortia are confined to one industry • Horizontal allow different industries trade there • Information portal—a personalized, single point of access through a Web browser to business information inside (and marginally from outside) an organization • Publishing portals Commercial portals • Personal portals Corporate portals • Mobile portals Prentice Hall, 2003

  27. Supply Chains • Supply chain—the flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers Includes organizations and processes that create and deliver the following to the end customers: • Products • Information • Services Prentice Hall, 2003

  28. Supply Chains (cont.) • A supply chain involves activities that take place during the entire product life cycle • It also includes: • Movement of information and money and procedures that support the movement of a product or a service • The organizations and individuals involved Prentice Hall, 2003

  29. Exhibit 2.3A Simple Supply Chain Prentice Hall, 2003

  30. Supply Chain Components • Upstream supply chain—includes the activities of suppliers (manufacturers and/or assemblers) and their suppliers • Internal supply chain—includes all in-house processes used in transforming the inputs received from the suppliers into the organization’s outputs • Downstream supply chain—includesall the activities involved in delivering the product to the final customers Prentice Hall, 2003

  31. Types of Supply Chains • Integrated make-to-stock • Continuous replenishment • Build-to-order—model in which a manufacturer begins assembly of the customer’s order almost immediately upon receipt of the order • Channel assembly—model in which product is assembled as it moves through the distribution channel Prentice Hall, 2003

  32. Exhibit 2.4Supply Chains: Integrated & Build-to-Order Prentice Hall, 2003

  33. Value Chain & Value System • Value chain—the series of activities a company performs to achieve its goal(s) at various stages of the production process; each activity adds value to the company’s product or service, contributes to profit, and enhances competitive position in the market • Value system—a set of value chains in an entire industry, including the value chains of tiers of suppliers, distribution channels, and customers • http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_value_chain.htm Prentice Hall, 2003

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  35. Supply Chain & Value Chain • Value chain and the supply chain concepts are interrelated • Value chain shows the activities performed by an organization and the values added by each • The supply chain shows flows of materials, money, and information that support the execution of these activities Prentice Hall, 2003

  36. Supply Chain & Value Chain (cont.) • EC increases the value added by: • Introducing new business models • Automating business processes • EC smoothes the supply chain by: Reducing problems in the flows of material, money, and information • EC facilitates the restructuring of business activities and supply chains Prentice Hall, 2003

  37. Intermediation in E-Commerce • Intermediaries provide value-added activities and services to buyers and sellers: wholesalers, retailers, infomediaries • Roles of intermediaries • Search costs—databases on customer preferences • Lack of privacy—anonymity of sellers and buyers • Incomplete information—gather product information • Contract risk—protect sellers against non-payment • Pricing inefficiencies—induce appropriate trades Prentice Hall, 2003

  38. E-Distributors on B2B • E-distributor—an e-commerce intermediary that connects manufacturers (suppliers) with buyers by aggregating the catalogs of many suppliers in one place—the intermediary’s Web site • E-distributors also provide support services • Payments • Deliveries • Escrow services • Aggregate buyers’ and or sellers’ orders Prentice Hall, 2003

  39. Disintermediation &Reintermediation • Disintermediation—elimination of intermediaries between sellers and buyers • Reintermediation—establishment of new intermediary roles for traditional intermediaries that were disintermediated Prentice Hall, 2003

  40. Syndication as an EC Mechanism • Syndication—the sale of the same good (e.g., digital content) to many customers, who then integrate it with other offerings and resell it or give it away free http://www.yellowbrix.com/ Prentice Hall, 2003

  41. Competition in the Internet Ecosystem • Competition in the Internet ecosystem (business model of the online economy) • Inclusive with low barriers to entry • Self-organizing • Old rules may no longer apply • Competition is tense • Lower buyers’ search cost • Speedy comparisons • Differentiation and personalization Prentice Hall, 2003

  42. Competition in the Internet Ecosystem (cont.) • Differentiation—providing a product or service that is unique • Personalization—the ability to tailor a product, service, or Web content to specific user preferences • Lower prices Prentice Hall, 2003

  43. Competition in the Internet Ecosystem (cont.) • Customer service is an extremely important competitive factor • Some competitive factors are less important as a result of EC: • Size of company is no longer significant • Geographical location is insignificant • Language barriers are being removed • Digital products do not have normal wear and tear Prentice Hall, 2003

  44. Competition in the Internet Ecosystem (cont.) • EC supports efficient markets and could result in almost perfect competition with these characteristics: • Many buyers and sellers must be able to enter the market at no entry cost • Large buyers or sellers are not able to individually influence the market • The products must be homogeneous • Buyers and sellers must have comprehensive information about the products and about the market participants’ demands, supplies, and conditions Prentice Hall, 2003

  45. Porter’s Competitive Analysis • Porter’s competitive forces model applied to an industry views 5 major forces of competition that determine the industry’s structural attractiveness • These forces, in combination, determine how the economic value created in an industry is divided among the players in the industry • Such an industry analysis helps companies develop their competitive strategy Prentice Hall, 2003

  46. Exhibit 2.6: Porter’s Competitive Forces Model Prentice Hall, 2003

  47. Liquidity • Liquidity—the need for a critical mass of buyers and sellers • The fixed cost of deploying EC can be very high • Without a large number of buyers, sellers will not make money • Early liquidity—achieving a critical mass of buyers and sellers as fast as possible, before the market-maker’s cash disappears • Get big fast or Get it Right First? • http://workingknowledge.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=1682&t=strategy Prentice Hall, 2003

  48. Quality Uncertainty & Assurance • Quality uncertainty—the uncertainty of online buyers about the quality of products that they have never seen, especially from an unknown vendor • Provide free samples • Return if not satisfied Microproduct—a small digital product costing a few cents • Insurance, escrow, and other services Prentice Hall, 2003

  49. Product characteristics Type Price Availability of standards and product information Industry characteristics Brokers may be currently necessary Intelligent systems may replace brokers Seller characteristics Consumers find sellers with the lowest prices Low-volume, higher-profit-margin transactions Consumer characteristics Impulse buyers Patient buyers Analytical buyers E-Market Success Factors • Contributors to e-market success Prentice Hall, 2003

  50. Market Mechanisms -Electronic Catalogs- • Electronic catalogs—the presentation of product information in an electronic form; the backbone of most e-selling sites • Evolution of electronic catalogs • Merchants—advertise and promote • Customers—source of information and price comparisons • Consist of product database, directory and search capability and presentation function • Replication of text that appears in paper catalogs • Moredynamic, customized, and integrated Prentice Hall, 2003

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