DNA & Translation. Gene : section of DNA that creates a specific protein Approx 25,000 human genes Proteins are used to build cells and tissue Protein synthesis involves two processes: 1) Transcription 2) Translation. DNA and Translation. Transcription Review.
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Approx 25,000 human genes
Proteins are used to build cells and tissue
Protein synthesis involves two processes:
2) TranslationDNA and Translation
Each mRNA codon matches with 1 of 20 amino acids
Ribosome reads codons 1 at a time
AUG codon: Activates the ribosome (start codon)
UAA or UAG or UGA codon: deactivates the ribosome (stop codon)
The Genetic Code
Ribosome reads one codon at a time
AUG = methionine
GCU = alanine
tRNA carries over the proper amino acid
tRNA anticodon matches with the mRNA codon
Prevents delivery of wrong amino acid
One by one, amino acids are linked together
Translation ends when a “stop” codon is reached
What just happened?: A ribosome made a proteinTranslation Details
Now the codon and anticodon match. This ensures the proper amino acid (serine) is delivered.
This is why the anticodon is important!
Because the codon and anticodon don’t match, the wrong amino acid will not be delivered.
GAU AUG CCG AGU CCA GGA UCU UGA
Always use mRNA to find the amino acid
T T C
A A G
U U C
a. Proteins are assembled
b. Ribosome reads a codon one at a time
c. mRNA arrives at the ribosome
d. tRNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome
7) Be able to solve practice problems similar to the three examples on slides #8-11.