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SAB MEETING. Introduction to the CoE in LOW TEMPERATURE QUANTUM PHENOMENA AND DEVICES by Professor Mikko Paalanen. WELCOME. OBSERVERS Science Advisor Anna Kalliomäki , Academy of Finland Professor Timo Jääskeläinen , Academy of Finland and Joensuu University

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sab meeting

SAB MEETING

Introduction to the CoE in

LOW TEMPERATURE QUANTUM PHENOMENA AND DEVICES

by

Professor Mikko Paalanen

SAB MEETING

welcome
WELCOME
  • OBSERVERS
  • Science Advisor Anna Kalliomäki, Academy of Finland
  • Professor Timo Jääskeläinen, Academy of Finland and Joensuu University
  • Vice Rector Outi Krause, TKK
  • Research Director Aarne Oja, VTT

MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY BOARD

  • Professor Mats Jonson, Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Göteborg Univ.
  • Professor John Saunders, University of London, Royal Holloway, London
  • SENIOR COHOSTS
  • Professor Pertti Hakonen (TKK, LTL, NANO GROUP)
  • Professor Jukka Pekola (TKK, LTL, PICO)
  • Research Professor Heikki Seppä (VTT, QUANTRONICS)
  • Dr. Antti Manninen (Mikes)
  • Docent Tero Heikkilä (TKK, LTL, THEORY)
  • Professor Nikolai Kopnin (TKK, LTL, THEORY)
  • Professor Grigory Volovik (TKK, LTL, THEORY)
  • Professor Matti Krusius (TKK, LTL, ROTA)
  • Dr. Harry Alles (TKK, LTL, INTERFACE)
  • Docent Juha Tuoriniemi (TKK, LTL, YKI)

SAB MEETING

outline
OUTLINE
  • MISSION OF THE SAB
  • MISSION AND STRUCTURE OF THE CoE
  • FACILITIES
  • PERSONNEL
  • FUNDING
  • ACHIEVEMENTS
  • CHALLENGES FOR 2007-
  • ROAD MAP TO EXCELLENCE

SAB MEETING

mission of the sab
MISSION OF THE SAB
  • EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
    • 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2011
  • ADVICE AND SUPPORT TO THE CoE
    • Help in formulating short and long term research strategies
  • REPORTS TO:
    • Academy of Finland
    • Helsinki University of Technology (TKK)
    • State Research Center (VTT)

SAB MEETING

mission of the coe
MISSION OF THE CoE
  • TO EDUCATE PhD-LEVEL EXPERTS FOR SOCIETY
  • TO INVESTIGATE FUNDAMENTAL QUANTUM PHENOMENA
    • NATURAL SYSTEMS
    • ENGINEERED NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING NANOSTRUCTURES
  • TO DEVELOPE APPLICATIONS OF QUANTUM DEVICES
    • NEW REFRIGERATION METHODS AND QUANTUM APPLICATORS
    • ULTRA SENSITIVE SENSORS AND AMPLIFIERS FOR INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE
  • TO CATCH INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON CHOSEN AREAS OF RESEARCH

SAB MEETING

helsinki university of technology tkk state research centre vtt academy of finland af
HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (TKK)STATE RESEARCH CENTRE (VTT) ACADEMY OF FINLAND (AF)

Scientific

Advisory

Board (SAB)

Steering

Board

(SB)

LOW TEMPERATURE QUANTUM

PHENOMENA and DEVICES

Director Mikko Paalanen (TKK)

Vice-Director Heikki Seppä (VTT)

Six experimental research groups:

ROTA, Professor Matti Krusius

INTERFACE, Dr. Harry Alles

YKI, Docent Juha Tuoriniemi

NANO, Professor Pertti Hakonen

PICO, Professor Jukka Pekola

QUANTRONICS, Research Prof. Heikki Seppä

Unique facilities:

Three sub-mK, two 15-mK and six 50-mk cryostats

Cryogenic liquifier facilities (330 m2)

Machine shop (400 m2)

On-the-premises semi-clean room (55 m2)

Access to on-campus cleanroom (Micronova, 2600 m2)

Experienced personnel:

Scientific 40 FTE

Secreterial 4 FTE

Technical 4 FTE

SAB MEETING

low temperature laboratory 80 physics research unit helsinki university of technology tkk

CoE —STRATEGIC ALLIANCE OF TWO PARTNERS

LOW TEMPERATURE LABORATORY (80%)Physics Research UnitHelsinki University of Technology (TKK)
  • Independent basic research laboratory
  • Total number of personnel 50
  • Total annual budget about 2.0 Meuro
  • Research directions:
    • Ultra low temperature physics 40% 1965 -
    • Nanoelectronics 60% 1996 -

TKK

QUANTRONICS GROUP (20%)

State Research Centre (VTT)

VTT

  • Total number of personnel 9
  • Total annual budget about 0.7 Meuro
  • Research directions:
    • Industrial sensors 1980-
    • Applied quantum electronics 1985 -
    • Mesoscopic physics 1995-

INDUSTRY

SAB MEETING

slide8

QUANTUM METROLOGICAL TRIANGLE

CoE —MIKES collaboration

Dr. Antti Manninen, Mikes

SAB MEETING

slide9

#3 LTL

Present location

#9 LTL

New location

  • #36 Micronova
  • PICO team
  • - QUANTRONICS team

MIKES

SAB MEETING

cryohall in the ltl
CRYOHALL IN THE LTL

Home of ROTA, INTERFACE, YKI, NANO and PICO (50%) groups

Home of EU-funded Large Scale Infrastructure ULTI 1994-2008

Total replacement value of experimental facility is 3.5 Meuro

  • Large concentration of unique cryostats:
  • Three sub-mK cryostats
  • Two 10-mK cryostats
  • Three 50-mK cryostats
  • Nearby:
  • Liquifier facility 330 m2
  • Machineshop 400 m2
  • Semi-clean room 55 m2

SAB MEETING

on the premises semi clean room
ON-THE-PREMISES SEMI-CLEAN ROOM

Floor area 55 m2

Class 10 000 environment

Operated by graduate students

Freedom for risky innovations

90% of our nanoelectronics samples made here

JEOL 6400 ebeam writer

SAB MEETING

micronova centre for micro and nanotechnology
MICRONOVACentre for Micro- and Nanotechnology

Leading centre in micro- and nanotechnology in Finland

Total replacement value 35 Meuro

Jointly operated by VTT and TKK

Home of QUANTRONICS and PICO (50%) groups

Located on the campus some 400 m from the LTL

Largest clean room (2 600 m2)

in Nordic countries

Modern offices for 300 scientist

SAB MEETING

funding of ltl
FUNDING OF LTL

LTL 55 k€/person-year

VTT 85 k€/person-year

Research work is cheap in Finland!

SAB MEETING

achievements in 2005 2006
ACHIEVEMENTS IN 2005 - 2006

THERE ARE MANY YARDSTICKS:

  • Publications and their impact (Nature, Science, RMP, PRL, APL…)
  • Prizes, awards and honorary memberships
  • Graduate education (number of PhDs, graduation time and later employment)
  • Services for science community (chairmanships, evaluations, conferences..)
  • Societal impact (patents, spin-off companies..)
  • International funding (coordination of large EU-projects….)
  • ………
  • How should we measure international leadership in science?

- Should we use other yardsticks?

- Leading indicators and lagging indicators?

SAB MEETING

annual number of prls if 7 5
ANNUAL NUMBER OF PRLs (IF = 7.5)

Years Our CoE TKK Finland Bell Labs World

1986-90 14 19 43 497 8 916

1991-95 20 35 85 362 11 484

1996-00 25 61 152 178 14 670

2001-05 30 80 198 141 17 274

2006- 10 15 47 17 3 454

2006

# of PRLs %

Our CoE 10 0.3

Finland 47 1.4

Sweden 80 2.3

United Kingdom 325 9.4

USA 1 572 45.0

WORLD 3 454 100.0

Our CoE produces about 20% of Finnish PRLs

Information based on ISI Web of Science: http://isi3.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi?DestApp=WOS&Func=Frame

SAB MEETING

slide17

JOURNAL IF CoE TKK FIN WORLDScience 30,9 0 1 8 4 968Rev. Mod. Phys. 30.3 2 2 2 58Nature 29.3 2 2 8 5 123 Nature Materials 15.9 1 1 2 460Physics Reports 10.5 0 0 3 100Mat Sci Eng R 10.5 0 1 1 23Total # IF>10 5 7 24 10 732Our CoE produces about 20% of the high-IF physics publications (IF > 10) in FinlandInformation based on ISI Web of Science: http://isi3.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi?DestApp=WOS&Func=Frame

PHYSICS PUBLICATIONS IN 2005 – 2006

IF > 10

SAB MEETING

highlights 2005 2006
HIGHLIGHTS 2005-2006
  • DISCOVERY OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF LITHIUM METAL (YKI)
    • Still unpublished
  • NO SIGN OF SUPERSOLID IN 4HE CRYSTAL AT MC (INTERFACE)
    • Invited 30 min talk in APS March Meeting 2007
  • INDUCED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN MWCNTs (NANO)
    • Invited 30 min talk in APS March Meeting 2007
  • QUANTIZATION OF PHOTON HEATCONDUCTIVITY IN 1D SAMPLES (PICO)
    • Appeared in Nature today!
  • 26 PATENTS GRANTED
    • NANO 1, PICO 1 and QUANTRONICS 24

SAB MEETING

international conferences workshops and schools organized by our coe
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES, WORKSHOPS AND SCHOOLSorganized by our CoE

Year NAME OF THE CONFERENCE Participants Proceedings

1996 ULTI User Meeting on Vortices, Interfaces and Mesoscopic Phenomena in Quantum Systems 100 Yes

1996 Workshop on Liquid/Solid Interfaces in Helium 33 No

1998 ULTI User Meeting on Quantum Phenomena at Low Temperatures 80 Yes

1999 LT22, 22nd International Conference on Low Temperature Physics 1381 Yes

2001 ULTI User Meeting on Ultra Low Energy Physics: Methods and Phenomenology 85 Yes

2001 Nordic Winterschool on Nanophysics (Kevo) 28 No

2002 Kevo Spring School on Low Temperature Physics 25 Yes

2003 Advanced European Cryogenic School 46 No

2004 ULTI User Meeting on Quantum Phenomena at Low Temperatures 87 Yes

2004 COSLAB Workshop on Turbulence and Vacuum Instability in Cond. Matter and Cosmology 39 No

2004 Nordic Springschool in Nanoelectronics (Kilpisjärvi) 40 No

2005 Martti M. Salomaa Memorial Symposium 50 No

2006 ULTI User Meeting on Low Temperature Physics 100 Yes

2006 Symposium celebrating the 60th birthday of Nikolai Kopnin and Grigory Volovik ??? No

2008 ULTI User Meeting ~ 100 Yes

2009 Advanced European Cryogengineering School ~50 No

SAB MEETING

spin off companies
SPIN-OFF COMPANIES
  • Two successful spin off companies from the LTL in 40 years
    • Elekta Neuromag Ltd, ~ 25 employees
    • Picowatt, 3 employees
  • Nanoway Ltd founded by Jukka Pekola in 1997
    • Nanothermometers
  • Aivon Ltd will start in 2007 (Quantronics team)
    • Device application of superconducting electronics

SAB MEETING

challenges ahead
CHALLENGES AHEAD
  • Is the research plan innovative enough?
  • Do we have proper management, funding, equipment and support personnel to do what we have promised?
  • How should we monitor achievements?
  • How to improve the role and careers of young and female scientists in the CoE
  • How to improve our public image?
  • How to survive the move?
  • How to further improve our competitive edge?

SAB MEETING

road map to excellence
ROAD MAP TO EXCELLENCE
  • Careful selection of projects
    • Small critical size of the effort, suitable for university environment
    • Maximum impact on world science
    • Readiness for risky experiments
    • Strong theory support for the experiments
  • Competitive edge reached by home built unique equipment
    • Best refrigerators  experiments at record low temperatures
    • Smallest microrefrigerators and nanothermometers  non-equilibrium physics
    • Lowest noise amplifiers  experiments at quantum limit
  • Proper attention to applications and patents
    • QUANTRONICS team from the VTT forms the bridge to industry

SAB MEETING

opponents of recent phds
OPPONENTS OF RECENT PhDs

2000-2004

Roch Schanen Olivier Avenel (CEA, Paris)

Tauno Knuuttila Yasumasa Takano (University of Florida, USA)

Jaakko Ruohio Jeevak Parpia (Cornell University, USA)

Jari Penttilä David Haviland (Royal Inst. Of Technology, Stockholm)

Viktor Tsepelin Sebastien Balibar (ENS, Paris)

Juha Kopu Vladimir Mineev (Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble)

Rob Blaauwgeers Giorgio Frossati, DeBryan and Matti Krusius

Risto Hänninen Dierk Rainer (University of Bayreuth, Germany)

Leif Roschier Martin Wybourne (Darthmouth College, USA)

Janne Viljas James Sauls (North Western University, USA)

Juha Hassel John Clarke (Berkeley, USA)

Antti Niskanen Gerd Schön (University of Karlsruhe, Germany)

2005-2006

Kirsi Juntunen Michael Steiner (Hahn Meitner Institute, Berlin)

Mika Sillanpää Hans Mooij (Delft University of Technology)

Reeta Tarkiainen Helene Bouchiat (University Paris-Sud, France)

Jani Kivioja Herve Curtois (CNRS, Grenoble)

Antti Finne Joe Vinen (University of Birmingham, UK)

Rene Lindell Frank Hekking (Joseph Fourier Univ. & CNRS, Grenoble)

SAB MEETING