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Introduction to Aquatic Science • Day 1 Agenda: • Housekeeping, textbooks, classroom procedures • Intro to the World’s Oceans • World’s Oceans Activity • Review continents/oceans • http://www.purposegames.com/game/123 • http://www.purposegames.com/game/the-world-oceans-quiz-quiz
The wide-open ocean holds many mysteries. Physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth science concepts and ideas help scientists solve them. Fig 1.1
The ocean is home to a wide variety of marine ecosystems, some of which you will study in this Lesson. In every ecosystem, whether land or marine, there is interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. Fig. 1.5
Intro to Marine Ecosystem Project • Consider the area where you live or go to school – your neighborhood. List 3 biotic and 3 abiotic factors in your land-based neighborhood. • Recall from Bio 1 – what is the difference between biotic and abiotic?
Marine Ecosystems • Open Ocean • Coral Reef • Kelp Forest • Mangrove Forest • Deep Ocean • Rocky Shore • Polar Sea • Salt Marsh
Marine Ecosystem Project Day 1/2 • In your groups, go to e-Tools, click on your ecosystem. • In your notebook, in your own words! • Use the website links for your ecosystem. • Answer the questions on your project sheet. • Once completed, report findings on posterboard. • Be creative, poster must answer ALL questions. • Use pictures, charts, tables, etc.
Marine Ecosystem Project: Day 3 • Scientific Conference: • Finishing touches on poster. • Label ecosystem on classroom map. • Gallery Walk • Record accurate notes, these will serve as your notes for this section!
Human Impacts on Marine Ecosystem • https://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/globalmarine
Changing Ecosystems • Case Study 1 – Whale Falls • While you watch, answer the following ?’s in your journal: • What do you observe happening? • About how many diff types of organisms do you see? • Do you this is the result of a natural event of human activity? Why?
Whale fall – Ecological succession • Blue Whales are largest animal to have ever lived on Earth. • Whales have the longest migration of all mammals. • Ex: Humpback – 8000 km (~5000 miles) • Average life span is longer than a human. • When they die, they sink to seafloor. This is known as a whale fall.
Ecological Succession • The next series of images shows the decomposition of a whale carcass if it sinks to the bottom over a period of 7 years…
February 2002. Initial visit by scientists (~6 months after the whale fall event); (B) December 2004. 34 months since initial scientist visit; (C) November 2005. 45 months since initial scientist visit; (D) December 2007. 70 months since initial scientist visit; (E) March 2009. 85 months since initial scientist visit.
Whale Fall Event Weird vimeo • Introduces abundance of nutrients to a specific area of the seafloor. • Carcass at 40 tons can have 2-3000 kg of lipids in skeleton. • Use ROVs – (Remote Operated Vehicles) equipped with high def cameras to observe • Variety of organisms decompose whale and move available nutrients into marine food web.
During a whale fall event organisms are grouped based on when they arrive and what they eat. • Background specialists • Species that remove flesh or soft tissue from carcass • Arrive early and remain present throughoutentire decomposition • Examples • Deepwater fish • Blob sculpin • Snubnose eelpout • Hagfishes • Sleeper sharks • Worms • Shrimps • Crabs • Many scavengers
Background specialists Hagfish/lamprey
Background specialists • Snubnose eelpout • blobfish
Organisms grouped: • Bone specialists • Once flesh removed, these guys show up. • Present for long period, living off oil in whale bone. • Where do you think most of the oil in whales comes from? • 60% of bones can be oil! • Examples • Osedax – marine worm • 5 minute listen
Organisms grouped: • Species with unclear connections • Group is not seemingly dependent on whale fall
Graph Interpretation: • What do you notice about the groups of organisms that are present at the whale carcass over time? • Can you explain the increase in bone specialists after Month 21? • How might you explain increase in background specialists between Month 21 and 24? • How might you determine if your analysis in the questions above is accurate?
Class discussion • What do you notice about the groups of organisms that are present at the whale carcass over time? • The number of background specialists varies, however, they remain present over the entire decomposition process. The number of bone specialists is lowest in the initial stages of the decomposition and increases after 21 months. The presence of species with unclear connections varies over time.
Class discussion • Can you explain the increase in bone specialists after Month 21? • By this time all of the flesh was likely removed from the whale carcass, exposing whale bone. Bone specialists increased in number because of the availability of bone on which to feed.
Class discussion • How might you explain increase in background specialists between Month 21 and 24? • It is possible that organisms categorized as background specialists include those that feed on bone specialists. Predators of bone specialists may arrive at this time. These organisms may or may not be included in the species with unclear connections.
Class discussion • How might you determine if your analysis in the questions above is accurate? • Student answers will vary but should include the topic of conducting additional research and consulting with scientists in the field.
Case Study 2 – Mangrove Restoration • Have you ever been to a mangrove forest?
Mangrove forests • Found along coast where fresh water meets salt water • Also known as “botanical amphibians” • Subtropical and tropical latitudes near Equator • Carribbean • Australia • India • Cover <8% of Earth’s coastlines • Organisms can survive in brackish water (slightly salty) • One of the most diverse ecosystems
Mangrove forests • 4 main groups of mangroves • Red mangroves • Black mangroves • White mangroves • Buttonwoods • Provide a stabilizing barrier between land and water • Reduce erosion during storms and hurricanes • Filter fresh water entering ocean from land • Reduce pollutants (mercury, lead) and excess sediment
National Geographic • Despite their strategic importance, mangroves are under threat worldwide. They are sacrificed for salt pans, aquaculture ponds, housing developments, roads, port facilities, hotels, golf courses, and farms. And they die from a thousand indirect cuts: oil spills, chemical pollution, sediment overload, and disruption of their sensitive water and salinity balance.- National Geographic
Mangrove Restoration • Compare the biotic and abiotic factors in the photographs above. • How do the differences observed between A and B demonstrate succession? • Root word – succeed “to come after something”
Mangrove Restoration • Copy chart into your notebook. Compare the biotic and abiotic factors in the photographs above. • How do the differences observed between A and B demonstrate succession?
Mangrove History • 1996 – Florida passed Mangrove Trimming and Preservation Act to preserve and protect mangroves as a natural resource. • Unfortunately, mangroves are in danger. • Since 1980 – 20 % of world’s mangroves have been lost due to human activity and natural events. • Scientist now know that mangroves can reestablish themselves in 15-30 years if area is left alone, not altered by humans, and natural source of mangrove seeds.
Discussion • Based on your research of marine ecosystems, what are some of the problems that living things in the ecosystem you studied have faced? • In your group, list some factors that could affect ecosystem that you researched.
What are National Marine Sanctuaries? • NMS and America’s underwater treasures • System of 14 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) that encompass nearly 25,000 square km. • Marine and Great Lake waters from Washington State to Florida Keys and from Lake Huron to American Samoa
National Marine Sanctuaries • Scientists conduct formal research in sanctuaries to learn about the ecosystem and the organisms that inhabit • You can’t protect something you don’t know about! • Protect endangered species and historically significant shipwrecks • Range from <1 sq km to 362,074 sq km
National Marine Sanctuaries • Largest is Papahanaumokuakea created during George W. Bush’s term in 2006 (scroll down to google street view) • Actually a Marine National Monument (offer more protection than NMS) • Northwest Hawaiian Islands • Commercial fishing not allowed • Tourism limited • Florida Keys NMS is the most accessible to visitors