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What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions?Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005
Factors that affected the health “caring” Culture.
Women’s disempowered statusI • Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners • Had to access low caste women traditional dais • Dais were illiterate women
The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre.
TBA • Donkey ride for pregnant women • Massaging/kneading the abdomen • Pulling on the cord • Cow dung as lubricant • Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body
No “caring culture” • Lepers were burnt or buried alive • Sick in an “epidemic” were left to die • Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic • Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees • Sick had no recourse to help
Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost…
Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing
IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT • The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one “whole” • The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected
One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers
Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.
Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.
High and low trust societiesSENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of book on Trust
THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS WEALTH CREATION SOLITARY WORSHIP LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY FAMILY BUSINESS ONLY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL
Subjective culture vs ObjectiveLow O/S ratio-V • We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. • When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side. • This is why we fall sick.
Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because • Interpret reality subjectively • Access knowledge subjectively • Subjective attitudes in justice and gender
Indian religions… • In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. • WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. • Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture.
Family versus truth-VI A father and a husband is like a God
Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 1 Finland 9,7 9.5 - 9.8 9 2 New Zealand 9,6 9.4 - 9.6 9 3 Denmark 9,5 9.3 - 9.7 10 Iceland 9,5 9.4 - 9.7 8 5 Singapore 9,3 9.2 - 9.4 13 6 Sweden 9,2 9.1 - 9.3 11 7 Switzerland 9,1 8.9 - 9.2 10 8 Norway 8,9 8.6 - 9.1 9 9 Australia 8,8 8.4 - 9.1 15 10 Netherlands 8,7 8.5 - 8.9 10 11 United Kingdom 8,6 8.4 - 8.8 12 12 Canada 8,5 8.1 - 8.9 12 13 Austria 8,4 8.1 - 8.8 10 Luxembourg 8,4 8.0 - 8.9 7 15 Germany 8,2 8.0 - 8.5 11 16 Hong Kong 8,0 7.1 - 8.5 13
Family values & corruption • Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) • Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis) • Tribalism- Africa and India
What did the Christian Medical missionaries do? Women’s transformation Role Modeling of care Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Sustainability of transformation
Women’s health • Women medical missionaries ushered in “caring” for women • Women in India did not access hospitals • Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors
Maharani’s locket • Elizabeth Bielby-1880 • Maharani of Panna • Locket message to The Queen “The women of India Suffer greatly”
SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 1. Clara Swain 1870 American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP. 2. Sara Seward 1871 American Presbyterian Allahabad, UP Mission 3. Seeyle 1871 Women’s Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America 4. Sarah Norriss 1873 American Board of Medical Women --- 5. Rose Greenfield 1875 Society for female Education in the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 6. Elizebeth Bielby 1876 Zenana Bible and Medical Mission UK. Lucknow, UP
Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 7. Ms Hewlett 1877 England Zenana Mission Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell 1878 American Baptist Board Burma 9. Fanny Butler 1880 Church of England Jabalpur, Mp. 10. Ida Faye 1881 American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP. 11. Anna Kugler 1883 Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP. 12. Elizabeth Beatty 1884 United Church of Canadian Mission Indore, MP. 13. Mana White 1886 United Presbyterian Church of America Siakot, (Jammu Border) 14. Jessie Carelton 1887 American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab. 15. Matilda Machphail 1887 Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN 16. Ottoman 1890 Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa
Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 17. Edith Brown 1893 Society for Female Education in the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 18. Alene Calkins 1895 American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP. 19. Pearl Chute 1896 Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP. 20. Ida S Scudder 1900 Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN. 21. Gertude Hulet 1904 Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP. 22. Charlotte Pring 1915 Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP. 23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc. Board Jagadalpur, MP. 24. Annie Mackay 1926 Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP. 25. Katherine Lehmann 1928 ? Renigunta, AP.
Ida Scudder • Not a medical college but the kingdom of God (1918)
Catherine-Methodist church-redefined access • One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by • Ship for 6 months to Bombay • To Raipur by train for a week • Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar • Methodist hospital built in 1892. • Largest Methodist congregation in India
Transformation of women • The highest number of women doctors in the world • India is a huge “nurse factory” • 1947-95% of all nurses were Christian! • All traceable to the women’s medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries
Ancient India did not have a culture of “care” • By a “caring culture” I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals • Religion was divorced from “loving your neighbor” • No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2nd century BC • Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged
In what was a caring “void” • Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care • The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. • Orphanages…home for widows… • Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals • Programs for epidemic care
Social work in India… • The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time. • Now the social work being done in India…those going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences.
By 1940 AD…. • There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India • Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals • TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian
Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78 • Pioneer missionary educationist • English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society • Scripture education introduced but made optional • “Downward filter theory”-working with High castes • Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay
Christians ushered in a culture of “care” • Started many NGO’s that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor • Role modeled caring • Taught “caring”
Welfare-Social capital did not exist • The only safety net for the poor was • The joint family • Individual philanthropy and • The caste system
The concept of the voluntary sector…. • Indian culture did not have this concept of “volunteerism” • “Activism” for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change)
The concept of the ”voluntary” sector….. • Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) • 1810-1947 This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGO’s) • Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished.
As a result …1825 onwards • Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools • Started social reform organizations for the purpose of “caring” • Care of widows & remarriage • Care of orphans & preventing child marriage
The many champions of “caring” • Some were Christians • Some liked “Christian” values but were not Christians • Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to “care” but remained Hindus
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833)founder of “Brahmo Samaj” A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the father of modern India. Oil Painting by Atul Bose Raja Ram drew inspiration from William Carey “The first feminist”
Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83 • Founded Arya Samaj • Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation • Assassinated in 1883 AD
The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone
Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875 Educated in “The Scottish mission school” Became a great educationist Started “caring”institutions
Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar • From 1854-55 he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856.
Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism As a result Indian religions werechallenged to reform