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Proto-Orthodox/Early Catholics Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Philip Other apocryphal texts, e.g. Acts of Paul , Shepherd of Hermas Heresies: Gnosticism Arianism Monophysitism. God. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon.
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Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas,
Gospel of Philip
Other apocryphal texts, e.g. Acts of Paul,
Shepherd of Hermas
to return to divine realm.
Salvation could be achieved by
knowledge (gnosis) from
Knowledge brought by an
1. Spiritual being who instructed
disciples while masquerading
as a human
2. Spiritual being temporarily
inhabiting human body of Jesus
3. Often ascetic, despite claims of
4. Complex, opaque teachings
excommunicated for claiming Christ
not eternal, but separate entity begotten
Christ created so that God might create
universe through him
Christ sharing divine power but subject
produces Nicene creed
330-79 Arianism enjoys imperial favour
381 Council of Constantinople summoned by
Theodosius I (r. 379-95), outlaws
Laodicea, teaches that Christ has only one,
divine nature inhabiting human body.
Logos (Word) taking place of soul
In response, Nestorius (d. c. 451), Patriarch of
Constantinople, preaches that Christ has
two natures and two persons, one human,
one divine. Teaching known as
(Mainstream view is two natures, one human,
one divine, in one person)
teaching. Some, led by Eutyches
(d. c. 454), state that Christ has two
natures, one human, one divine, fused
into one = Monophysitism
451 Council of Chalcedon. Monophysitism
and Nestorianism condemned, but
still practiced centuries later (e.g. by
Copts in Egypt)
Christian clergy and practice
Latin as language of worship and
Worship becoming highly ritualised
Eucharist as central, ritualised part of
Mass, conducted by educated clergy
Wine only given to laity in 15th c.
Accounts of Saints’ Lives
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
First accounts of saints’ lives written in late
4th/early 5th c.
Growth of Cult of Saints in following
Ambrose (c. 339-397)
Statement of belief from Council of Nicea, 325
Bishop of Milan and staunch defender of the
church, even from demands of emperors