research design formulating the research problem l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Research design – formulating the research problem PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Research design – formulating the research problem

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 15

Research design – formulating the research problem - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 648 Views
  • Uploaded on

Research design – formulating the research problem. Chapter 4 in Babbie & Mouton (2001) How to pose proper scientific questions The logic of the research process The research process O/head p. 98. Research design and research methodology.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Research design – formulating the research problem' - kipp


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
research design formulating the research problem
Research design – formulating the research problem
      • Chapter 4 in Babbie & Mouton (2001)
  • How to pose proper scientific questions
  • The logic of the research process
  • The research process
    • O/head p. 98

Formulating the research question

research design and research methodology
Research design and research methodology
  • Design – a plan or structured framework of how you intend to conduct the research
  • "A strategic framework for action that serves as a bridge between research questions and the execution or implementation of the research"
  • Methodology – refers to the methods, techniques, and procedures that are employed in implementing your research plan (design)

Formulating the research question

purposes of research
Purposes of research
  • Exploration
  • Description
  • Explanation

Formulating the research question

exploration
Exploration
  • To develop an initial, rough understanding of a phenomenon
  • Methods:
    • literature reviews
    • Interviews
    • case studies
    • key informants

Formulating the research question

description
Description
  • Precise measurement and reporting of the characteristics of the population or phenomenon
  • What is the case?
  • What is the nature of the relationship?
  • Methods: census, surveys, qualitative studies
      • NOTE: a sidestep to correlational studies

Formulating the research question

correlation
Correlation
    • See Chapter 2 in Weiten, for a quick review
  • Correlation: the degree of relationship between two variables, A and B

Formulating the research question

direction of correlation
Direction of correlation:
  • When A has a high value, B has a high value; when A has a low value, B has a low value = a positive correlation.
  • E.g. the relationship between the amount smoked and the probability of heart disease
  • When A has a high value, B has a low value; when A has a low value, B has a high value = a negative correlation.
  • E.g.: Durkheim: the more socially integrated a society is, the lower the incidence of suicide in that society (p. 23 in Babbie and Mouton). Or: amount of daily exercise and probability of heart disease.
  • Also NO correlation = when two variables do not co-occur (see causation). E.g. studying Psychology and the probability of heart disease.

Formulating the research question

explanation
Explanation
  • Why “Is x the case?” or “Is x the relationship?”
  • Methods
    • experimental
      • NOTE: a sidestep to causation

Formulating the research question

cause
Cause
  • Three requirements:
    • Cause precedes effect
    • A cause co-occurs with the effect
    • The third variable problem

Formulating the research question

cause and correlation
Cause and correlation
  • Cause precedes effect
    • p. 83, Babbie and Mouton, smoking marijuana and academic performance
  • Co-occurrence
    • Correlational research only tells you two if variables happen together
    • A cause always co-occurs with an effect (Drinking a lot of alcohol) and (feeling light-headed and throwing up) co-occur because drinking alcohol causes drunkenness

Formulating the research question

cause and correlation11
Cause and correlation
  • BUT:
    • non-causally related events can also co-occur!
      • (The ANC wins the 2004 election) and (Dave obtains distinctions in his first semester courses in 2004)
    • ALSO: Very few perfect correlations in “the probabilistic world of social explanations”
    • Two non-causally related events/variables can co-occur because they are both related to something else – the “third variable”
      • p. 83, Babbie and Mouton, smoking marijuana, academic performance, and emotional problems
      • Does watching a lot of violent programmes on TV, or playing violent video games, cause children to behave more aggressively in preschool?

Formulating the research question

causality
Causality:
  • A causes B if and only if
  • A exists then B exists
  • A does not exist, then B does not exist
  • Correlational studies test only “If A exists then B exists”
  • To test for causality, it is generally considered that we need a different type of design: an experimental design. To be discussed under “Types of design”.

Formulating the research question

some decisions about designs
Some decisions about designs
  • The purpose of your study (exploration, description, explanation)
    • This will impact on your decision about the type of design you will need
  • The unit of analysis
    • What are you talking about?
    • Individuals? Groups? Organizations? Social actions?
  • The time dimension
    • Is the study longitudinal (follow people over a long period of time) or cross-sectional (a snapshot in time)?

Formulating the research question

some decisions about designs14
Some decisions about designs
  • Examples
    • See Weiten p. 434, on the long-term stability of temperament and personality: is a child's temperament at ten a predictor of his/her temperament at ten?
    • Those of you doing Developmental Psychology (PSY209F), look at Chapter 1 in Sigelman & Rider
    • Also distinguish between trend, cohort and panel studies
    • Trend studies: changes in a population over time
    • Cohort studies: changes in relatively specific sub-populations (cohorts) as they change over time
    • Panel studies: examine the same set of people over time.

Formulating the research question

conclusion
Conclusion
  • These decisions affect the conclusions that can be drawn. Hence careful consideration of them – PRIOR to the study’s commencement.
  • We want our research to be VALID: truth, rationality, objectivity. A study has validity when it has the capacity to study what it aims to study – e.g. one that claims to study intelligence must have some measure of intelligence in it.
  • A study with poor validity is powerless.
  • Different types of research design have different threats to validity.

Formulating the research question