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The Research Problem. PE 357. Selecting the problem. Can be for research or a literature review To break the problem down more … needs to be of interest to you can ask professors go with your own hunches read text books. Once the basic problem is defined.. .

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selecting the problem
Selecting the problem
  • Can be for research or a literature review
  • To break the problem down more …
    • needs to be of interest to you
    • can ask professors
    • go with your own hunches
    • read text books
once the basic problem is defined
Once the basic problem is defined..
  • You need to do a literature search for background information
  • Search conceptual literature – written material by experts or authorities
  • Search related research – studies to learn what is known on the subject
does the problem need further study
Does the problem need further study?
  • 1) Is it still interesting?
  • 2) is it worthwhile?
  • 3) is it manageable?
  • Best way to do research is to develop an outline
a research proposal consists of three chapters
A research proposal consists of three chapters
  • 1) Introduction
  • 2) Review of Literature
  • 3) Methodology
  • often the last decision
  • takes crafting
    • can’t be too long but also needs to be long enough to get the content across
general rules for titles
General rules for titles
  • 1) Keep it clear and descriptive for indexing
  • 2) Identify key variables and scope
    • (I.e., does the title precisely identify the problem
  • 3) Avoid unnecessary phrases: “effect of”, “relationship between”, “analysis of”, “a review of”
introducing the problem
Introducing the problem
  • leader paragraphs
  • hour glass approach
  • specify the problem
  • provide rationale (why is it important?)
introducing the problem cont
Introducing the Problem Cont...
  • use broad references but leave the literature review to the literature review section
  • the introduction can be quite short
  • provide the purpose (why) and problem (what) statement
  • watch the term “the study investigated…”
developing the hypotheses
Developing the hypotheses
  • Expected results based on theory or experience
  • Stated as outcomes
  • Null hypotheses
    • No significant differences or relationships
    • Used for statistical tests
more on hypotheses
More on Hypotheses
  • 1) should be based on theory or previous findings
  • 2) should state a relationship between at least two variables
  • 3) simple statement
  • 4) can be tested
  • 5) can be refuted
  • 6) related to design, procedures, and statistical technique
writing the introduction
Writing the Introduction
  • Omit technical jargon.
  • Know who you are writing for.
  • Write introduction after the problem, purpose, and hypotheses.
  • Catch the reader’s attention!
significance of the study i e why
significance of the study(I.e., why?)
  • knowledge gaps
  • more and better knowledge is needed
  • present knowledge needs validation
  • present knowledge needs clarification
  • solution to the problem needs to be found
  • Independent variables (IV)
  • Dependent variables (DV)
  • Extraneous variables (EV)
making your problem and hypotheses clear
Making Your Problem and Hypotheses Clear
  • Operational definitions
    • Key terms with specific meaning
  • Assumptions
  • Limitations
    • Possible shortcomings
  • Delimitations
    • Characteristics imposed by the researcher
examples of limitations
Examples of limitations
  • Research design
  • sampling problems
  • uncontrolled variables
  • faulty independent variables
  • faulty dependent variables
how do we control for extraneous variables
How do we control for Extraneous Variables?
  • Random Selection
  • Matching
  • Removal
  • Statistical Control