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Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians. Chapter 23 Herbal Therapeutics. Basic Terminology. Alternative medicine refers to treatments or therapies that are outside accepted conventional medicine

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fundamentals of pharmacology for veterinary technicians

Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians

Chapter 23

Herbal Therapeutics

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • Alternative medicine refers to treatments or therapies that are outside accepted conventional medicine
  • Complementary medicine refers to the use of alternative therapies with or in addition to conventional treatment

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

types of alternative and complementary medicine
Types of Alternativeand Complementary Medicine
  • Veterinary acupuncture and acutherapy
    • Examination and stimulation of body points by use of acupuncture needles, injections, and other techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of conditions
  • Veterinary chiropractic
    • Examination, diagnosis, and treatment of animals through manipulation and adjustments
  • Veterinary physical therapy
    • Use of noninvasive techniques for rehabilitation
  • Veterinary homeopathy
    • Treatment by administration of substances that are capable of producing clinical signs in healthy animals

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

types of alternative and complementary medicine1
Types of Alternativeand Complementary Medicine
  • Veterinary botanical medicine
    • Uses plants and plant derivatives as therapeutic agents
  • Nutraceutical medicine
    • Uses micronutrients, macronutrients, and other nutritional supplements as therapeutic agents
  • Holistic veterinary medicine
    • Comprehensive approach to health care using both alternative and conventional diagnostic techniques and therapeutic approaches

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

western vs chinese herbal medicine
Western vs.Chinese Herbal Medicine
  • Western herbal medicine
    • Holds that individuals have an inner force that works to maintain physical, emotional, and mental health
    • Teaches that many diseases occur because an individual’s inner force or natural immune system is out of balance
  • Chinese traditional herbal medicine
    • Based on a holistic philosophy of life that emphasizes the relationship among the mental, emotional, and physical components of each individual; also stresses the importance of harmony among individuals, their social groups, and the greater population
    • Attempts to restore health through correction of imbalances within a patient’s body or between the patient and natural order

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

herbal supplements
Herbal Supplements
  • Herbal supplements are one of the fastest growing segments of the dietary supplement market in the United States
    • One reason may be the desire for a more holistic approach to health care
    • Another reason may be that people believe conventional treatments have real or perceived limitations
    • Another reason may be that people believe natural products do not have side effects
    • Herbs have been used for a long time
    • Advertising methods have influenced people’s buying behavior

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

quality control
Quality Control
  • Herbal supplements do not require FDA approval because they are considered food supplements
  • Herbal supplements may have active ingredients that vary among dose forms
  • The FDA is working with several trade organizations to develop guidelines for herbal supplements
  • Table 23-1 covers other factors affecting herb quality
  • See Table 23-2 for information on herbal forms

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

ginkgo ginkgo biloba
GinkgoGinkgo biloba
  • Active ingredients are ginkgo flavone glycosides and terpene lactones
  • Used to reduce aging effects of the nervous system, to reduce hypertension, and as a general tonic in animals
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450 and induce hypoglycemia

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

st john s wort hypericum perforatum
St. John’s WortHypericum perforatum
  • Active component, hyperforin, regulates the effects of serotonin
  • Used to treat behavior disorders such as lick granulomas, aggression, separation anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders
  • May inhibit cytochrome P450, affect blood pressure, and cause photosensitivity

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

ginseng panax ginseng
GinsengPanax ginseng
  • Active component, ginsenosides, are responsible for increasing energy, countering stress, and enhancing physical performance
  • Also seems to stimulate natural killer cell activity
  • Used to treat weight loss, anorexia, and systemic infections
  • May affect blood glucose levels, increase blood pressure and heart rate, increase GI motility, and induce seizures at high levels

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

garlic allium sativum
GarlicAllium sativum
  • Active component, allicin, causes reduction of cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and hypertension
  • Believed to have anticarcinogenic properties
  • Used to treat parasitic infections, fungal infections, and respiratory problems, and to acidify urine (some with limited success)
  • May cause inhibition of platelet aggregation, prolonged bleeding times, GI upset, and Heinz body anemia

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

echinacea echinacea purpurea
EchinaceaEchinacea purpurea
  • Active components, fructofuranosides, contribute to tissue regeneration, regulation of the inflammatory response, and a mild cortisone-like effect
  • Stimulates phagocytosis and natural killer cell activity
  • Used to shorten the severity and duration of infections
  • Side effects are minimal

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

saw palmetto serenoa repens
Saw palmettoSerenoa repens
  • Fatty acids from the berries produce an enzyme to prevent the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone
  • Used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, to stimulate appetite, and as a mild diuretic
  • Side effects are minimal other than gastrointestinal problems

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

evening primrose oenothera biennis
Evening primroseOenothera biennis
  • Contains gamma-linolenic acid, an acid in the omega-6 family
  • Used to treat premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic neuropathy, and eczema in humans
  • Side effects include loose stools and abdominal cramps
  • May lower the seizure threshold in some on phenothiazine medication; use caution in animals

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

goldenseal hydrastis canadensis
GoldensealHydrastis canadensis
  • Active ingredient, berberine, gives goldenseal its antibacterial and antiparasitic properties
  • Used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections
  • Side effects include cardiac problems, and stimulation of the CNS and uterine contractions

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

cranberry vaccinium macrocarpon
CranberryVaccinium macrocarpon
  • Interferes with the attachment of urinary pathogens to the urinary bladder wall
  • Used to treat urinary tract infections
  • Side effects include diarrhea, stomach problems, and the development of kidney stones

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

valerian valeriana officinalis
ValerianValeriana officinalis
  • Volatile oils in valerian break down the inhibitory substance GABA
  • Used to treat hyperactivity in dogs, for mild tranquilization, and as a sleep aid
  • Side effects include hepatotoxicity with long-term use and interaction with other depressant drugs

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

advice regarding herbs
Advice Regarding Herbs
  • The National Animal Supplement Council has developed a “Compliance Plus” program to develop standards for the herbal supplement and product industry
    • Provides reliable information to clients about possible side effects or interactions
  • Follow general guidelines listed

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

general guidelines for herbs
General Guidelines for Herbs
  • Ask all clients whether they give herbs or other supplements to their animals
  • Inform clients that herb-drug interactions exist
  • Encourage the use of standardized products from respected manufacturers
  • Use herbal therapies in recommended doses
  • Avoid herbs with known toxicities
  • Do not use herbs in pregnant or nursing animals, the very young, or the very old
  • Accurate diagnosis of the animal’s condition is essential to evaluate all therapeutic options
  • Document all herb or supplement use in the animal’s medical record

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.