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Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians. Chapter 22 Behavior-Modifying Drugs. Basic Terminology. The use of drugs to treat problem behaviors is only a small part of treating animal behavior problems

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fundamentals of pharmacology for veterinary technicians

Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians

Chapter 22

Behavior-Modifying Drugs

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • The use of drugs to treat problem behaviors is only a small part of treating animal behavior problems
    • Must correctly diagnose the condition, examine the social conditions, and alter external stimuli
  • Potential side effects of long-term use
    • Liver, kidney, and cardiovascular problems
  • Used extra-label
    • Must have veterinarian/client/patient relationship

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

classes of behavior modifying drugs
Classes of Behavior-Modifying Drugs
  • Anti-anxiety drugs
    • Antihistamines
    • Benzodiazepines
    • Phenothiazines
    • Azapirones
    • Barbiturates
  • Antidepressants
    • Tricyclics
    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Hormones
    • Progestins
    • Estrogen
    • Testosterone inhibitors

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

anti anxiety drugs
Anti-anxiety Drugs
  • Anti-anxiety drugs attempt to decrease anxiety
  • Types of anti-anxiety drugs
    • Antihistamines produce some degree of sedation because they suppress the CNS
      • Used to treat anxiety associated with pruritus; the antipruritic effects of antihistamines appear to lessen this anxiety as well
      • Examples include hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

anti anxiety drugs5
Anti-anxiety Drugs
  • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
    • Benzodiazepines
      • Are chemically related compounds used to relieve anxiety; appear to work on the limbic system of the brain by potentiating GABA
      • Bind to specific sites in the brain; appear to produce sedation and relieve anxiety
      • Used to treat aggression, urine spraying, and noise phobias
      • Examples include diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, flumazenil, and alprazolam

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

anti anxiety drugs6
Anti-anxiety Drugs
  • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
    • Phenothiazines
      • Are chemically related compounds that work by antagonism of dopamine (increased dopamine levels are associated with some psychotic diseases)
      • Used to treat aggression (however, may make animals more reactive to noise)
      • Examples include chlorpromazine, acepromazine, promazine, perphenazine, and prochlorperazine

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

anti anxiety drugs7
Anti-anxiety Drugs
  • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
    • Azapirones
      • Chemically different from other anti-anxiety drugs; do not cause sedation
      • Work by blocking serotonin; used to treat urine spraying and anxiety-associated aggression
      • An example is buspirone
    • Barbiturates
      • Have anti-anxiety action due to their ability to cause CNS depression (they have an effect on GABA)
      • Used to control vocalization in cats and seizure-like anxiety in dogs
      • Examples include phenobarbital and carbamazepine

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

antidepressant drugs
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Antidepressant drugs are used to treat various mood changes (including aggression) and cognitive dysfunction in animals
  • Transmission of nerve impulses between two nerves or between a nerve and tissue takes place via the release of neurotransmitters from storage sites at the nerve terminal
  • After the neurotransmitter combines with the appropriate receptors, reduction of neurotransmitter concentration occurs
    • One mechanism involves the reuptake of neurotransmitter
    • Another mechanism involves destruction of neurotransmitter by monoamine oxidase (MAO)

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

antidepressant drugs9
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
    • Work by interfering with the reuptake of serotonin by the presynaptic nerve cell; its metabolites inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine
    • Increases the concentration of neurotransmitter at postsynaptic receptors in the CNS
    • Used to treat separation anxiety, pruritic conditions, and compulsive disorders in animals
    • Side effects include anticholinergic effects, liver problems, and thyroid effects
    • Examples include amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and doxepin

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

antidepressant drugs10
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
    • Work by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, thus reducing the destruction of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
    • MAOIs irreversibly inhibit MAO
    • Used to treat cognitive dysfunction in dogs
    • Side effects include hypotension, drowsiness, and anticholinergic effects
    • An example approved for dogs is selegiline; extra-label examples include phenelzine, isocarboxazid, and tranylcypromine sulfate

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

antidepressant drugs11
Antidepressant Drugs
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • Work by inhibiting serotonin reuptake, resulting in increased serotonin neurotransmission
    • Used to treat depression, aggression, anxiety, phobias, and compulsive disorders
    • Side effects are few
    • Examples include fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

hormones
Hormones
  • Progestins and estrogens have calming effects due to their suppression of the excitatory effects of glutamine and their suppression of male-like behaviors
  • Side effects include mammary gland hyperplasia, endometrial hyperplasia, bone marrow suppression, and endocrine disorders
  • Examples include
    • Diethylstilbestrol: used for urinary incontinence
    • Medroxyprogestone acetate: used to treat male-like behaviors
    • Megestrol acetate: used to treat urine spraying, anxiety, aggression, and dermatitis conditions

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.

hormones13
Hormones
  • Testosterone inhibitors inhibit the production of testosterone or block enzymes that convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (its potent form)
  • Used to treat aggression in male dogs
  • An example is delmadinone, which is used to treat aggression in male dogs
  • The human product finasteride is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and may be used in the future in veterinary medicine

© 2004 by Thomson Delmar Learning, a part of the Thomson Corporation.