The Game of Chess and the Feudal System http://www.essortment.com/all/chesshistory_rmct.htm
The Game of Chess • Have you ever played the game of chess? • Did you know that chess is the oldest skill game in the world?
But chess is more than just a game of skill, it can tell you much about the way people lived during the Middle Ages.
Just as in a chess game, the castle provides protection with many lines of defense. The Middle Ages is often considered a time of protection.
If you look at the way a chess board is set up, then study the pieces and how they are used……
The six different chess pieces on the board represent a cross section of medieval life with its many ceremonies, its grandeur, and its wars.
Where did chess come from? • Chess was played for many centuries in China, India, and Persia. • No one really knows for sure where it actually originated.
Then in the eighth century A.D., armies of Arabs known a Moors, invaded Persia.
The Moors learned chess from the Persians. When the Moors later invaded Spain, the soldiers brought the game of chess with them. Soon the Spanish were playing chess, too.
From Spain, chess quickly spread through Europe. • The Europeans gave chess pieces the names we know today.
Today, we can see that the pieces represent the way both ordinary people and persons of rank lived their lives during the Middle Ages.
Pawns • The pawns on a chess board represent the serfs or laborers. They were not really part of the feudal system but everything depended upon the fact that they grew the food and provided the labor force for the lords. • There are more of them than any other piece on the board, and often they are sacrificed to save the more valuable pieces.
How are the pawns like the serfs? • There were far more serfs than nobles. • The serfs had to serve the nobles. The difference between serfs and peasants is that serfs were tied to the lord’s manor and could not leave. Most peasants were serfs.
In medieval times, serfs were considered no more than property of the landowners.
Life was brutally hard for serfs during this era of history. They were often left unprotected while wars raged around them.
They could be traded, used as a diversion, or even sacrificed to allow the lord to escape harm.
Rook The castle piece, or rooks as they are often called, is the home, or refuge, just as it was a place of protection during the Middle Ages.
In chess, each side has two castles, or rooks. During the middle ages, many lords had more than one castle or manor.
On the battle field, the knights actually used a siege tower, a tower on wheels used to get over a castle wall. The rook in a chess game could also represent that as well.
Knight • The knight on a chess board represents the nobles whose job it was to protect the lord and his manor. • There were two knights per each side of the chess board.
. A lord usually had many knights, or vassals who swore allegiance (loyalty) to the lord in exchange for a fief, or piece of land. Thus a knight could develop his own manor.
Knights in a game of chess are more important than pawns, but less important than bishops, kings, or queens as was true in the Middle Ages.
KNIGHts • The knights’ purpose in the game of chess is to protect the more important pieces, and they can be sacrificed to save those pieces just as pawns can. In the Middle Ages, the knights’ role was to protect the lord, the king, and the church. The knight was a vassal to the lord above him.
Bishops The bishop represents the church.
The church was a rich and mighty force in medieval times. Everyone had to give a tithe (part of their money or goods) to the church. Religion played a large part in every person’s life.
A bishop was the name for a priest in the Catholic church who had risen through the ranks to a more powerful position. • There are two bishops for each side representing the importance and strength of the Church.
The church in the Middle Ages included the bishops, priests, monks, and nuns.
Queen The queen is the only piece on the board during a chess game that represents a woman.
Believe it or not, she is the most powerful piece of the game. In the game of chess there is only one queen for each side.
Many people do not realize that queens in medieval times often held a powerful, yet dangerous position.
The king was often guided by her advice. • In many cases, the queen played games of “intrigue,” plotting or conspiracy, in court.
But, kings could set wives aside, or even imprison them in nunneries with the approval of the church, without the queen’s approval. • Many queens had to battle other nobles in court, just to hold her place.
The queen could work either for or against their kings. • Sometimes the queen held more power than the king did. Eleanor of Aquitaine was an example of a powerful queen.
King • . The king is the tallest piece on the board. This is the most well defended piece on the chessboard, as in medieval life
In medieval times, the surrender of the king would mean the loss of the kingdom to invading armies and that could mean a change that could result in worse conditions of life for everyone. Richard II surrendering in 1399.
It was to everyone’s advantage from the lowest serf to the highest-ranking official, to keep the king safe from harm.
The king is the most important, but not the most powerful piece in chess.
If you do not protect your king, you lose the game. If people in the Middle Ages did not protect their king, they might lose their way of life.
So, the next time you set up your chessboard and get ready to play a friendly game of chess……
The pieces on the board represent a way of life that is no more, and the real life dramas that occurred in the medieval times are now only a game.
References • http://www.essortment.com/all/chesshistory_rmct.htm • http://www.tenafly.k12.nj.us/~ccutrone/Chess%20Game.pdf • http://library.thinkquest.org/26408/feature/chess_history.shtml
Picture References • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rich99.com/images/table_final.jpg&imgrefurl=http://rich99.com/opengl.htm&usg=__NFEvl7mKiSNGNX2IQfSdVV8WULQ=&h=768&w=1024&sz=94&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=zOR-Dg6ksk8PAM:&tbnh=160&tbnw=213&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bgame%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D615%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=356&vpy=310&dur=2308&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=160&ty=122&ei=IaviTJL8N4qRnwenso2PDw&oei=IaviTJL8N4qRnwenso2PDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0 (picture of chess set) • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/__ojjFjeIKvQ/R5CwQOmsT1I/AAAAAAAAACg/l3GpCEq0iww/s320/Championship%2BStaunton%2BChess%2BPieces.gif&imgrefurl=http://momsterinaz.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html&usg=__67PRFwgYhjL_IzeMmkbKMFItRnY=&h=300&w=300&sz=11&hl=en&start=10&zoom=1&tbnid=Su9idOzMTE-JGM:&tbnh=134&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bpieces%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C482&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=121&vpy=114&dur=1918&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=122&ty=133&ei=EsviTKWzC4T58Aaml9zODA&oei=BsviTL25GsGWnAfb0aGJDw&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:10&biw=1276&bih=615 (Chess pieces) • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freefoto.com/images/40/11/40_11_4---Conway-Castle_web.jpg%3F%26k%3DConway%2BCastle&imgrefurl=http://www.freefoto.com/preview/40-11-4%3Fffid%3D40-11-4&usg=__Jla9HoMGMCvfXSG1BYIJmW5M42o=&h=400&w=600&sz=63&hl=en&start=18&zoom=1&tbnid=b7KvHwCFi4JKqM:&tbnh=145&tbnw=181&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcastle%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C185&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=301&vpy=337&dur=1295&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=126&ty=180&ei=JMziTOXNFML78AaS0djtDw&oei=EcziTJH4BdaznAf5hLXFDA&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:18&biw=1276&bih=615 • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://chesspuzz.com/images/Sultan_Chess_Piece_Knight.jpg&imgrefurl=http://chesspuzz.com/chess_sets_review.html&usg=__ZUneeFP11Pld3xwDGoktW-mVXII=&h=381&w=251&sz=15&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=_Nop0eX3ise7OM:&tbnh=174&tbnw=117&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bpiece%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=624&ei=Jc3iTJDsN-OQnwertfCHDw&oei=Jc3iTJDsN-OQnwertfCHDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0&tx=52&ty=101 • http://www.clker.com/clipart-23921.html • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.by-the-sword.com/acatalog/MEce005t.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.by-the-sword.com/acatalog/CASTLE_KEEP_ROOK_OF_ARTHURIAN_CHESS_SET_MECE005.html&usg=__o4nH-81RZlsGb2a7tU56p_pad9I=&h=300&w=300&sz=10&hl=en&start=66&zoom=1&tbnid=sayzcWAn2Vm6oM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Brook%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C1327&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=124&vpy=295&dur=3495&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=117&ty=178&ei=787iTLDCEoKr8AatztjiDA&oei=3c7iTNevJ8KenwexhMj8Dg&esq=4&page=4&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:66&biw=1259&bih=615 • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tilepix.com/gallery/singles/chess/images/white_rook_400x400.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tilepix.com/gallery/singles/chess/white_rook.htm&usg=__Yz6CqfiifCu9Q3hhHviqtlLzFbw=&h=400&w=400&sz=8&hl=en&start=66&zoom=1&tbnid=HjBIWfqylCs58M:&tbnh=142&tbnw=142&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Brook%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C1174&um=1&itbs=1&ei=Pc_iTIS5BsL88AbfmsWfDw&iact=hc&vpx=435&vpy=369&dur=2559&hovh=167&hovw=167&tx=99&ty=137&oei=3c7iTNevJ8KenwexhMj8Dg&esq=3&page=4&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:66&biw=1259&bih=615 • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://comps.fotosearch.com/comp/SUE/SUE104/chess-queen_~BWBW1409.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.fotosearch.com/SUE104/bwbw1409/&usg=__wJ5Ry-0poF4S4AMptmZZbHOBiaE=&h=320&w=300&sz=23&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=TVDggpNJWqplMM:&tbnh=160&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bqueen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C168&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=135&vpy=225&dur=10140&hovh=232&hovw=217&tx=137&ty=100&ei=etDiTKGgPIumnAfW-fTzDg&oei=etDiTKGgPIumnAfW-fTzDg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0&biw=1259&bih=615 • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.tattootribes.com/multimedia/110/elfic-chess-queen.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.tattootribes.com/index.php%3Fnewlang%3DEnglish%26idinfo%3D688&usg=__amTUu9gD3ceTxbvlLF-M-cMpAUI=&h=200&w=200&sz=11&hl=en&start=13&zoom=1&tbnid=7HcYlsqTJiIZUM:&tbnh=138&tbnw=146&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bqueen%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=437&ei=0NDiTK3ZJIH48AbChZmvDw&oei=etDiTKGgPIumnAfW-fTzDg&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:13&tx=81&ty=81 • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://s3.amazonaws.com/pixmac-preview/chess-pawns-on-the-board-from-above.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.business-stock-photos.com/picture/chess-pawns-on-the-board-from-above/000019493233&usg=__JGpsykl4cN8uE-kqt883okG1-7k=&h=266&w=400&sz=48&hl=en&start=39&zoom=1&tbnid=4IEBqYalZ6IBLM:&tbnh=131&tbnw=197&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchess%2Bpawns%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D615%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C698&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=958&vpy=337&dur=109&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=154&ty=191&ei=bdHiTOjnOMT58Abs4aDTDA&oei=SdHiTIHKFcGWnAfb0aGJDw&esq=3&page=3&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:39&biw=1259&bih=615 • http://www.chessstrategiesblog.com/wp-content/uploads/chess_board_set_up.jpg (chess board) • http://www.museumize.com/v/vspfiles/photos/7703-2.jpg (chess pieces) • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Fig_2_Persian_youth_playing_chess.jpg&imgrefurl=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm%3FArticleID%3D1195&usg=__Vj0y0jyESro5V80sBgoKDXFXop0=&h=554&w=715&sz=80&hl=en&start=24&zoom=1&tbnid=mKWl0HNxSTgGPM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=185&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dancient%2Basia%2Bmap%2Bchina,%2Bindia,%2Bpersia%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D780%26bih%3D439%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C1114&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=482&vpy=129&dur=2106&hovh=198&hovw=255&tx=192&ty=131&ei=MyoKTeruGsWBlAeh9_GZBQ&oei=JSoKTfzVDoOB8gaMxMmgAQ&esq=4&page=4&ndsp=7&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:24&biw=780&bih=439(Persians playing chess)
Picture References • http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.white-history.com/moors/problem25.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.white-history.com/moors.htm&usg=__phk7BZ7xT1Ygu4aSC4g8iaEO-A4=&h=299&w=454&sz=48&hl=en&start=8&zoom=1&tbnid=SYWYdCCLbBacbM:&tbnh=114&tbnw=173&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmoors%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D780%26bih%3D439%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=296&ei=aysKTZnnL4GClAfrsYjEAQ&oei=ZysKTYnrK8OC8gbo4IWhAQ&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=7&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:8&tx=102&ty=88 (moors playing chess) • http://www.ancientanatolia.com/historical/maps/persia.gif (map of persia) • http://www.irelandhistory.org/pictures/normans-knight.jpg (knights) • http://people.bu.edu/dklepper/RN307/4Ev-Trier.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Croxdale_Hall_Medieval_Church.jpg • http://www.pillagedvillage.com/images/art/costume1/Monk_Bishop_Priest.jpg • http://www.urbandigs.com/pawns.jpg • http://www.iconarchive.com/icons/icons-land/vista-chess/256/Rook-Yellow-icon.png (rook) • http://home.comcast.net/~DiazStudents/MiddleAgesChurchMonksFranciscan.jpg • http://www.englishare.net/literature/guinevere-nun.jpg • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_yAdUICQZuA4/SOzG8-A-q1I/AAAAAAAAAZs/D6fxNVitHcM/s400/amazon2.jpg (queen) • http://www.zeitlerweb.com/img/1485women.jpg • http://www.corbisimages.com/images/67/4263D976-0DF7-4353-ADDC-586524989470/DL001844.jpg (queen) • http://www.visualstatistics.net/East-West/Long%20Waves%20of%20Time/Isabella.jpg • http://www.corbisimages.com/images/67/F5DA2C84-FAA1-4B67-8211-8262BD556EC5/IH164025.jpg • http://www.stockphotopro.com/photo-thumbs-2/stockphotopro_8178784WEF_no_title.jpg (Richard II surrendering) • http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/richard2froissart2.jpg (king) • http://www.benalmadena-leisure-club.com/graphics/chess/chess4.jpg • http://s0.geograph.org.uk/photos/04/70/047018_9958c632.jpg (castle) • http://www.conservativebookstore.com/chess/pghdr.gif • http://www.pmpproducts.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/ble11brd.gif • http://www.funmurphys.com/photos/blog/europe/chess.jpg • http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/project5/images/070209005.jpg • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/__EpWNmZNpto/Rumet1ANcyI/AAAAAAAAAVg/zAyuuXmZPiU/s400/300px-Meister_der_Manessischen_Liederhandschrift_004.jpg