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INVESTIGATION OF AN EPIDEMIC/OUTBREAK. STEPS: Confirmation of the occurrence of an outbreak or epidemic. Diagnosis/confirmation of the diagnosis of the condition. Rapid preliminary collection and analysis of data to orient the epidemic with reference to place, person and time.

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investigation of an epidemic outbreak
INVESTIGATION OF AN EPIDEMIC/OUTBREAK

STEPS:

  • Confirmation of the occurrence of an outbreak or epidemic.
  • Diagnosis/confirmation of the diagnosis of the condition.
  • Rapid preliminary collection and analysis of data to orient the epidemic with reference to place, person and time.
  • Collection of other relevant information with reference to factors favoring transmission.
  • Formulation of tentative hypothesis.
contd
Contd.
  • Based on tentative hypothesis, action necessary to treat the sick, prevent the spread and contain the epidemic.
  • Collection of further data and arranging special investigation to support or reject the hypothesis.
  • Testing the hypothesis.
  • Evaluation of ecological factors.
  • Writing out the report of the investigation.
acute watery diarrhoea cholera
Acute watery diarrhoea/cholera
  • Trigger event: A single case of cholera or epidemiologically related case of diarrhoea or any case of severe dehydration or any diarrhoeal death >5 years of age.
  • Action to be taken:

1.Verify the information and diagnosis

2.Confirmation of the outbreak/epidemic.

3.Active search of cases with standard case definition.

4.Standard case management.

contd1
Contd.

5.Stool sample collection for cholera.

6.Enure safe water supply.

7.Inform district authority and ask for help.

8.IEC

9.Documentation and report writing.

10.Ensure buffer stock.

viral hepatitis
Viral Hepatitis
  • Trigger event: Clustering of cases from a particular village/urban ward where more than 2 cases of jaundice or >10cases/PHC
  • Action to be taken:

1.Verification of the diagnosis and outbreak.

2.Standard case management.

3.Active search of cases.

4.Ensure safe water supply.

contd2
Contd.

5.Serological investigation.

6.Referal of cases to the district hospital if necessary.

7.Investigation of different water sources, water treatment plant and pipeline leakage.

8.Ecological investigation.

9.Documentation and report writing.

10.Recommendation for prevention of such occurence.

measles
Measles
  • Trigger event: A single case from a tribal area or ≥ 2 cases of fever with rash.
  • Action to be taken:

1.Verification of the diagnosis through clinical manifestation.

2.Send sample for laboratory testing.

3.Standard case management.

4.Active search of cases.

5.Ring vaccination.

contd3
Contd.

6.Referal of cases to the district hospital if necessary.

7.Vitamin A supplementation.

8.Ecological investigation.

9.Documentation and report writing.

10.Recommendation for prevention of such occurrence.

11.IEC.

malaria
Malaria
  • Trigger event: A single malaria positive case in an area where was not present for minimum 3 months.
  • Action to be taken:

1. Mass survey for fever cases.

2.Microscopic examination of blood Smear.

3.Standard case management as recent drug policy.

4.Active search of cases through active suveillance.

contd4
Contd.

5.Focal spraying with synthetic pyrethroid.

6.Fogging daily for 3 days followed by bi-weekly for 3 weeks.

7.Application of larvicidal oil.

8.Elimination of mosquito breeding places.

9.ActivatecDDc/FTD.

10.Involvement of local bodies in IEC.

11.Daily surveillance for 3-4 weeks.