Gerunds and Infinitives. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Ex/ Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence Her favorite hobby is reading . complement of sentence
A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Ex/ Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence
Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence
I enjoy reading. object of sentence
Ex/ He enjoys not working.
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
Ex/ To learn is important. subject of sentence
The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence
He wants to learn. object of sentence
Ex/ I decided not to go.
The most important thing is not to give up.
Ex/ Learning is important. normal subject
To learn is important. abstract subject - less common
The most important thing is learning. normal complement
The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common
Have you considered getting a job abroad?
Excuse my interrupting…
You mentioned having been in hospital last year.
Ex/ You should check the oil before starting the car.
You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs.
He’s always talking about moving to the country.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Accustomed/ afraid/ certain/ sorry/
Interested/ sure/ used.
Gerund or infinitive?Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive, usually with a difference of meaning. The most important are:
+ gerund refers to things that happen earlier
+ infinivite refers to things that happen after the remembering…
Ex/ I shall always remember meeting you for the first time.
Remember to go to the post office.
I really must stop smoking.(stop what one is doing or does)
Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette. (make a break)
I shall never forget seeing the Queen. (forget what one has done or what has happened)
She’s always forgetting to give me my letters (what one has to do)
Ex/ I don’t regret telling her what I thought.
I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment.
Ex/ I’m interested in working in Switzerland.
I was interested to read in the papers that scientists have found out how the universe was form.
I like to get up early so that I can get plenty of work done before lunch.
Ex/ What would you like to do tomorrow?
Ex/ I love lying / to lie on my back and staring / to stare at the sky.
I prefer working / to work in the mornings.
I hate to mention it, but you owe me some money.
Allow, advise, forbid and permit + gerund = there is no personal object.
Ex/ Sorry, we don’t allow smoking in the lecture room.
We don’t allow people to smoke in here.
I wouldn’t advise taking the car.
I wouldn’t advise you to take the car.
Ex/ I tried sending her flowers but it didn’t have any effect.
Try putting in some vinegar, taht might make it taste a bit better.
Ex/ Please, try to understand.
I once tried to learn Japanese.
Afraid of + gerund = afraid of + infinitive. Little difference of meaning.
Ex/ I’m afraid of flying / to fly
I’m afraid of telling / to tell her.
Ex/ How old were you when you first started playing the piano?
Ex/ She began to understand what he really wanted.
Ex/ I can’t bear getting /to get my hands dirty.
He intends to double the advertising budget.
Sorry + infinitive = we apologize for something that we are doing or about to do.
Ex/ Sorry to disturb you, could I speak to you for a moment?
Sorry + gerund = we apologize for something we have done (we use for + -ing or that-clause)
Ex/ I’m sorry for waking you up yesterday.
I’m sorry that I woke you up yesterday.