biology 1414 unit 1 the urinary system n.
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Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

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Human Anatomy and Physiology II

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  1. Biology 1414 Unit 1 The Urinary System Human Anatomy and Physiology II

  2. List the functions of the urinary system and explain how they contribute to homeostasis. Objective 1 Unit 1 - Objective 1

  3. Functions of the Urinary System • Filtration of the blood • Occursin the glomerulus of the kidney nephron • Contributestohomeostasis by removing toxins or waste Unit 1 - Objective 1

  4. Functions of the Urinary System • Reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions and water • Occurs in most parts of the kidney nephron • Contributes to homeostasis by conserving important materials Unit 1 - Objective 1

  5. Functions of the Urinary System • Secretion of excess materials • Assists filtration in removing material from the blood • Contributes to homeostasis by preventing a build-up of certain materials in the body such as drugs, waste,etc. Unit 1 - Objective 1

  6. Functions of the Urinary System • Activation of Vitamin D • Vitamin D made in the skin is converted to Vitamin D3 by the kidney • Active Vitamin D (D3) assists homeostasis by increasing calcium absorption from the digestive tract Unit 1 - Objective 1

  7. Functions of the Urinary System • Release of Erythropoietin by the kidney • Erythropoietin stimulates new RBC production • New RBC’s assist homeostasis by insuring adequate Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transport Unit 1 - Objective 1

  8. Functions of the Urinary System • Release of Renin by the kidney • Renin stimulates the formation of a powerful vasoconstrictor called Angiotensin II • Angiotensin II assists homeostasis by causing vasoconstriction which increases blood pressure Unit 1 - Objective 1

  9. Functions of the Urinary System • Release of Prostaglandins • Prostaglandins dilate kidney blood vessels • Dilated blood vessels contribute to homeostasis by maintaining blood flow in the kidneys Unit 1 - Objective 1

  10. Functions of the Urinary System • Secretion of H (+1) and reabsorption of HCO3 (-1) • Eliminates excess hydrogen ions and conserves buffer material such as bicarbonate • Contributes to homeostasis by controlling acid/base conditions in body fluids Unit 1 - Objective 1

  11. Given a diagram of the Urinary System, you will recognize and label the following parts: kidney, ureters, bladder, urethra, internal and external sphincters. Objective 2 Unit 1 - Objective 2

  12. Urinary System Renal artery Renal Vein Kidney Ureter Urinary Bladder For sphincters, see next slide

  13. Internal urethral sphincter External Urethral Sphincter Urinary System Female Sphincters Male Sphincters

  14. Given a diagram of the kidney you will label and give the functions of the following structures: renal vein, renal artery, capsule, cortex, medulla, pyramids, renal papilla, calyx, pelvis, ureter, renal column and nephron Objective 3 Unit 1 - Objective 3

  15. Kidney Diagram Medulla Papilla Calyx Pyramid Renal Vein Cortex Renal Artery Nephron Pelvis Column Capsule Ureter

  16. Examine the kidneystructures in the following slides and note the particular functions. Functions of Kidney Structures Unit 1 - Objective 3

  17. Functions of Kidney Structures • The Renal Artery • Transports oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidney for filtration Unit 1 - Objective 3

  18. Functions of Kidney Structures • Renal Vein • Transports filtered and deoxygenatedblood from the kidney to the posterior vena cava and then the heart Unit 1 - Objective 3

  19. Functions of Kidney Structures • Renal Column • A passageway located between the renal pyramids found in the medulla and used as a space for blood vessels Unit 1 - Objective 3

  20. Functions of Kidney Structures • Nephron • The physiological unit of the kidney used for filtration of blood and reabsorption and secretion of materials Unit 1 - Objective 3

  21. Functions of Kidney Structures • Capsule • The outer membrane that encloses, supports and protects the kidney Unit 1 - Objective 3

  22. Functions of Kidney Structures • Cortex • The outer layer of the kidney that contains most of the nephron; main site for filtration,reabsorption and secretion Unit 1 - Objective 3

  23. Functions of Kidney Structures • Medulla • inner core of the kidney that contains the pyramids, columns, papillae, calyces, pelvis and parts of the nephron not located in the cortex; used for salt, water and ureaabsorption Unit 1 - Objective 3

  24. Functions of Kidney Structures • Renal Pyramids • Triangular shaped units in the medulla that house the loops of Henle and collecting ducts of the nephron; site for the counter-current system that concentrates salt andconserves water and urea Unit 1 - Objective 3

  25. Functions of Kidney Structures • Renal Papilla • The tip of the renal pyramid that releasesurine into a calyx Unit 1 - Objective 3

  26. Functions of Kidney Structures • Calyx • A collecting sac surrounding the renal papilla that transports urine from the papillato the renal pelvis Unit 1 - Objective 3

  27. Functions of Kidney Structures • Renal Pelvis • Collects urine from all of the calyces in the kidney Unit 1 - Objective 3

  28. Functions of Kidney Structures • Ureter • Transports urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder Unit 1 - Objective 3

  29. Given a diagram of a Nephron you will label and give the functionsof the structures: afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, decending limb and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, vasa recta, distal convoluted tubule, peritubular capillaries and the collecting duct. Objective 4 Unit 1 - Objective 4

  30. Proximal convoluted tubule Efferent arteriole Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Bowman’s capsule Distal convoluted tubule Vasa recta Decending limb of loop of Henle Collecting duct Ascending limb of loop of Henle Diagram of Kidney Nephron Unit 1 - Objective 4

  31. Functions of Nephron Structures • AfferentArteriole • Transports arterial blood to the glomerulus for filtration Unit 1 - Objective 4

  32. Functions of Nephron Structures • Efferent Arteriole • Transports filtered blood from the glomerulus , through the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta, and to the kidney venous system Unit 1 - Objective 4

  33. Functions of Nephron Structures • Glomerulus • The site for blood filtration • operates as a nonspecific filter; in that, it will remove both useful and non-useful material • the product of the glomerulus is called filtrate Unit 1 - Objective 4

  34. Functions of Nephron Structures • Bowman’s Capsule • A sac that encloses Bowman’s Capsule and transfers filtrate from the glomerulus to the Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) Unit 1 - Objective 4

  35. Functions of Nephron Structures • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) • A thick, constantly actively segment of the nephron that reabsorbs most of the usefulsubstances of the filtrate: sodium (65%), water (65%), bicarbonate (90%), chloride (50%), glucose (nearly 100%!), etc. • The primary site for secretion (elimination) of drugs, waste and hydrogen ions Unit 1 - Objective 4

  36. Functions of Nephron Structures • Decending Limb of the Loop of Henle • A part of the counter current multiplier • freely permeable to water and relatively impermeable to solutes (salt particles) • receives filtrate from the PCT, allows water to be absorbed and sends “salty”filtrate on the the next segment. “Saves water andpasses the salt” Unit 1 - Objective 4

  37. Functions of Nephron Structures • Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle • a part of the counter current multiplier • impermeable to water and activelytransports (reabsorbs) salt (NaCl) to the interstitial fluid of the pyramids in the medulla. “Saves salt and passes the water.” • the passing filtrate becomes dilute and the interstitium becomes hyperosmotic Unit 1 - Objective 4

  38. Functions of Nephron Structures • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) • receives dilute fluid from the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle • Variably active portion of the nephron • When aldosterone hormone is present, sodium is reabsorbed and potassium issecreted. Water and chloride follow the sodium. Unit 1 - Objective 4

  39. Functions of Nephron Structures • Collecting Duct • receives fluid from the DCT • variably active portion of the Nephron • when antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present, this duct will become porousto water. Water from the collecting duct fluid then moves by osmosis into the “salty” (hyperosmotic) interstitium of the medulla. • The last segment to save water for the body Unit 1 - Objective 4

  40. Functions of Nephron Structures • Peritubular Capillaries • transport reabsorbed materials from the PCT and DCT into kidney veins and eventually back into the general circulation • help complete the conservation process (reabsorption) that takes place in the kidney Unit 1 - Objective 4

  41. Identify the parts of the Nephron responsible for Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion, and describe the Mechanisms underlying each of these functional processes. Objective 5 Unit 1 - Objective 5

  42. Site of Filtration • Glomerulus • the Glomerulus is the site of filtration • the filtration mechanism is sieve-like and consists of fenestrated glomerularcapillaries, podocytes and a basementmembrane that allows free passage of water and solutes smaller than plasma proteins Unit 1 - Objective 4

  43. Location of the Glomerulus Efferent Arteriole Afferent Arteriole Bowman’s Capsule Glomerulus Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  44. Glomerular Filtration Mechanism Podocyte with Basement Membrane Glomerulus Bowman’s Capsule Fenestrated Capillary

  45. Describe the JuxtaglomerularApparatus and how it maintains renal blood pressure Objective 6 Unit 1 - Objective 6

  46. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus • Description • the juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of specialized macula densa cells that develop in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and specialized granular juxtaglomerular (JG) cells that develop mainly in the afferent arteriole. See following diagram. Unit 1 - Objective 6

  47. Bowman’s Capsule Efferent Arteriole DCT PCT MaculaDensa Cells The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus GranularJuxtaglomerular (JG) Cells Afferent Arteriole

  48. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus • Used in maintaining blood pressure • if the blood pressure drops, the granular JG cells release renin • renin converts the blood protein angiotensinogen into angiotensin I which converts to angiotensin II • angiotensin II acts as a vasoconstrictor to raise blood pressure. Continued on next slide. Unit 1 - Objective 6

  49. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus • Used in maintaining blood pressure continued: • Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone hormone from the adrenal cortex • aldosterone stimulates the DCT to reabsorb salt (NaCl). Continued on next slide. Unit 1 - Objective 6

  50. The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus • Used in maintaining blood pressure continued: • salt reabsorption attracts water to the blood by osmosis and raises blood volume, as well as, contributing to the increase in blood pressure. Continued on next slide. Unit 1 - Objective 6