human anatomy and physiology ii l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Human Anatomy and Physiology II PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Human Anatomy and Physiology II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 362 Views
  • Uploaded on

Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Biology 1414 Unit 4 Respiratory Physiology. Objective 1. List and give the percentage of the main gases of the atmosphere. Unit 1 - Objective 1. Main Gases of the Atmosphere. Gas Symbol Approximate % Nitrogen N2 78.6

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Anatomy and Physiology II' - Thomas


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
human anatomy and physiology ii

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Biology 1414

Unit 4

Respiratory Physiology

objective 1

Objective 1

List and give the percentage of the main gases of the atmosphere.

Unit 1 - Objective 1

main gases of the atmosphere

Main Gases of the Atmosphere

GasSymbolApproximate %

Nitrogen N2 78.6

Oxygen O2 20.9

Carbon Dioxide CO2 0.04

Water Vapor H2O 0.46

Unit 1 - Objective 1

objective 2

Objective 2

Define partial pressure and be able tocompute partial pressures of gases in a mixture.

Unit 1 - Objective 2

definition of partial pressure

Definition of Partial Pressure

Partial pressure refers to the pressure that is exerted by a single gas in some given system (atmosphere, blood, tissue, lung or experimental mixture). The sum of the individual partial pressuresproduces the total pressure in the system. This total pressure is called barometric pressure The barometric pressure of the atmosphere is 760 mmHg at sea level.

Unit 1 - Objective 2

calculation of partial pressure

Calculation of Partial Pressure

Partial pressure is directly proportional to the percentage of a gas in a mixture. In order to calculate the partial pressure of a gas, you will multiply the decimal equivalent of the percentage of a given gas by the total pressure of the system. The general formula would be:

partial pressure (P) = % of gas X total pressure

Unit 1 - Objective 2

calculation of partial pressure continued

Calculation of Partial Pressure Continued

If the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere is 20.9% and the total barometric pressure of the atmosphere is 760 mmHg, then:

PO2 = 0.209 X 760 mmHg.

This gives an oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of:

158.84 (159 rounded) mm Hg

Unit 1 - Objective 2

calculation of partial pressure continued8

Calculation of Partial Pressure Continued

If the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 0.04% and the total barometric pressure of the atmosphere is 760 mmHg, then:

PCO2 = 0.0004 X 760 mmHg.

This gives a carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) of:

0.304 (0.3 rounded) mm Hg

Unit 1 - Objective 2

objective 3

Objective 3

Distinguish between pulmonary ventilation, external and internalrespiration using short definitions.

Unit 1 - Objective3

definition of pulmonary ventilation

Definition of Pulmonary Ventilation

Pulmonary ventilation is the exchange of airbetween the atmosphere and the lungs. This process is commonly called breathing and depends on chest and diaphragm movements, as well as, clear airways. Inhalation (inspiration) lowers pressure inside the lungs which draws in air. Exhalation does the opposite.

Unit 1 - Objective 3

definition of external respiration

Definition of External Respiration

External respiration is gas exchangebetween the lung alveoli and the blood of the pulmonary circulation. This process depends on gas partial pressure differences, the integrity of lung membranes and blood flow in and out of the lungs.

Unit 1 - Objective 3

definition of internal respiration

Definition of Internal Respiration

Internal respiration is the exchange of gas between the blood and the cells of the body.

This process generally depends on the same factors as external respiration.

Unit 1 - Objective 3

objective 4

Objective 4

Explain or interpret the movement of gases between alveolar spaces, blood and cells due to differences in partial pressure.

Unit 1 - Objective 4

movement of gases in the body

Movement of Gases in the Body

Movement of gases between the alveoli, blood and cells depends on the partial pressure difference of a gas across these regions. According to the Law of Diffusion, gases always move from a region of high partial pressure to a region of low partial pressure. If your lungs have a higher gas pressure than your blood, then the gas will move into your blood and visa versa.

Unit 1 - Objective 4

movement of gases in the body15

Movement of Gases in the Body

Examine the following slide in order to observe the gas partial pressure differences that exist in different regions of the body. Predict the direction of oxygen and carbon dioxide movement from one region to another using the gas pressures.

Unit 1 - Objective 4

movement of gases in body

Movement of Gases in Body

Unit 1 - Objective 4

objective 5

Objective 5

Name the ways carbon dioxide and oxygen are transported by the blood.

Unit 1 - Objective 5

carbon dioxide transport

Carbon Dioxide Transport

MethodPercentage

Dissolved in Plasma 7 - 10 %

Chemically Bound to

Hemoglobin in RBC’s 20 - 30 %

As Bicarbonate Ion in

Plasma 60 -70 %

Unit 1 - Objective5

oxygen transport

Oxygen Transport

Method Percentage

Dissolved in Plasma 1.5 %

Combined with Hemoglobin 98.5 %

Unit 1 - Objective5

objective 6

Objective 6

Write reactions to show the formation of each of the following in the blood. Be able to define and discuss the functional significance of each: oxyhemoglobin, carbaminohemoglobin, bicarbonate ion, carbonic acid.

Unit 1 - Objective 6

oxyhemoglobin formation

O2 + Hb

HbO2

Oxyhemoglobin Formation

Oxyhemoglobin forms when an oxygen molecule reversibly attaches to the heme portion of hemoglobin. The heme unit contains iron ( +2 ) which provides the attractive force. The process is summarized as follows:

Unit 1 - Objective 6

carbaminohemoglobin formation

CO2 + Hb

HbCO2

Carbaminohemoglobin Formation

Carbaminohemoglobin forms when a carbon dioxide molecule reversibly attaches to an amino portion of hemoglobin. The process is summarized as follows:

Unit 1 - Objective 6

carbonic acid formation

CO2 + H2 0

H2 CO3

Carbonic Acid Formation

Carbonic acid forms abundantly in the RBC when the enzyme carbonic anhydrase stimulates water to combine quickly with carbon dioxide. The process is summarized as follows:

Unit 1 - Objective 6

bicarbonate ion formation

Bicarbonate Ion Formation

The bicarbonate ion also forms abundantly in the RBC when carbonic acid breaks down to release a hydrogen ion and bicarbonate. The process is summarized as follows:

H2 CO3

H+ + HCO3

Unit 1 - Objective 6

objective 7

Objective 7

Explain what takes place during the chloride shift and be able to diagram the chloride shift for tissue capillaries and pulmonary capillaries.

Unit 1 - Objective 7

chloride shift in tissue capillaries

Chloride Shift in Tissue Capillaries

When RBC’s move through tissuecapillaries, they take in carbon dioxide and release bicarbonate. As bicarbonate is released, chloride (-1) shifts into the RBC in order to replace the negative bicarbonate (-1). This preserves charge balance in the RBC. To see this, look at the next slide.

Unit 1 - Objective 7

chloride shift in tissue capillaries27

Chloride Shift in Tissue Capillaries

Tissue Capillary

Unit 1 - Objective 4

chloride shift in pulmonary capillaries

Chloride Shift in Pulmonary Capillaries

When RBC’s move through pulmonarycapillaries, they take in bicarbonate and release carbon dioxide. As bicarbonate (-1) shifts into the RBC, chloride (-1) shifts outof the RBC. This also preserves charge balance in the RBC. To see this, look at the next slide.

Unit 1 - Objective 7

chloride shift in pulmonary capillaries29

Chloride Shift in Pulmonary Capillaries

Pulmonary Capillary

Unit 1 - Objective5

objective 8

Objective 8

Given an oxygen dissociation curve, determine the percent of hemoglobin saturation with oxygen for a given PO2 and PCO2. Discuss the influence of the Bohr effect on hemoglobin saturation.

Unit 1 - Objective 8

the oxygen dissociation curve

The Oxygen Dissociation Curve

Examine the following oxygen dissociation curve and give the percent saturation at the following partial pressures of oxygen:

PO2Percent Saturation

100 mm Hg ?

40 mm Hg ?

26 mm Hg ?

Unit 1 - Objective 8

the oxygen dissociation curve32

The Oxygen Dissociation Curve

Unit 1 - Objective 8

the oxygen dissociation curve33

The Oxygen Dissociation Curve

The answers for the previous activity are as follows:

PO2Percent Saturation

100 mm Hg 98

40 mm Hg 75

26 mm Hg 50

Unit 1 - Objective 8

the bohr effect

The Bohr Effect

When the carbon dioxide content of the blood increases, the oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right. This right shift decreases the ability of hemoglobin to hold oxygen. Consequently, additional oxygen is unloaded and made available to the body. See the following graph for this effect.

Unit 1 - Objective 8

bohr effect

Bohr Effect

Bohr Shift Curve

Unit 1 - Objective 8

the bohr effect36

The Bohr Effect

Did you notice that when PCO2 increased from 40 to 80 mm Hg, oxygen saturation decreased from 75 % to about 65 %. This made an extra 10% oxygen available to the tissues. This would come in handy during increased activity. The Bohr shift is a very positive adaptation!

Unit 1 - Objective 8

objective 9

Objective 9

Cite or recognize four reasons why oxyhemoglobin is induced to give off oxygen in tissue capillaries

Unit 1 - Objective 9

factors that induce oxygen unloading from hemoglobin

Factors That Induce Oxygen Unloading From Hemoglobin

In addition to carbon dioxide that causes a right shift in the oxygen dissociation and more oxygen unloading, there are additional factors that cause a similar effect:

1. Increased body temperature

2. Increased H+ from acids

3. Increased 2,3-biphosphoglygerate

(BPG)

Unit 1 - Objective 9

objective 10

Objective 10

Give the location and function of the respiratory centers and list five factors that influence the centers.

Unit 1 - Objective 10

location of respiratory centers

Location of Respiratory Centers

The ponscontains the pneumotaxicrespiratory center and the apneusticrespiratory center. Both of these centers are considered secondary respiratorycenters. This means they do not set the basic respiratory rhythm. Instead, they modify the basic respiratory rate. Themedullacontains the medullary respiratorycenter that operates as the primary breathing center.

Unit 1 - Objective 10

location of respiratory centers41

Location of Respiratory Centers

View the following diagram for the location of the respiratory centers

Unit 1 - Objective 10

respiratory centers

Respiratory Centers

Medullary Respiratory Center

Unit 1 - Objective

function of respiratory centers

Function of Respiratory Centers

The pneumotaxicrespiratory center inhibits inhibits inspiratory time and increases breaths per minute. The apneusticrespiratory center has not been clearlydefined, but, is postulated to prolong inspiratory time and reduces breaths per minute. Themedullary respiratorycenter stimulates basic inspiration for about 3 seconds and then basic expiration for about 2 seconds (5sec/breath= 12breaths/min).

Unit 1 - Objective 10

factors that influence respiration

Factors That Influence Respiration

View the following slide for factors that influence respiration

Unit 1 - Objective 10