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Creating a Safety Culture a Team Sport. Prepared for Discussion Vermont Local Roads Management Academy July 15, 2010 VLCT–PACIF Staff Chris LaBerge, CPSI, CFI Wade Masure, CFI Fred Satink Cindy Bouchard, CPCU, CIC, ARM, AU.

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creating a safety culture a team sport
Creating a Safety Culturea Team Sport
  • Prepared for Discussion
    • Vermont Local Roads
    • Management Academy
    • July 15, 2010
  • VLCT–PACIF Staff
    • Chris LaBerge, CPSI, CFI
    • Wade Masure, CFI
    • Fred Satink
    • Cindy Bouchard, CPCU, CIC, ARM, AU
  • A Winning Team needs a common goal, a clearly articulated strategy and contributions from all.
today s objectives
Today’s Objectives
  • By the end of today you should have a better understanding of:
    • The Risk Management Process and how it relates to your operation
    • What does Safety Culture really mean & how to create or maintain it through Loss Control Management
the program
The Program
  • Review basic Risk Management concepts – explore various types of risk and the benefits of various management techniques.
  • Discuss safety culture - What is it?…How do we know if we have it?…How do we create it? it’s all about changing individual behavior.
  • Discuss Loss Control Management as a tool to achieve a positive safety culture.
  • Examine your exposures to risk (hazards) by completing a detail self assessment of your current Loss Control Management efforts.
  • Interactive please stop us at any point to ask questions, often the best part of these presentations.


Risk Management Basics

risk management what is it
Risk ManagementWhat is it?
  • Risk Management is a process by which we do the following:
    • Identify, analyze & evaluate loss exposures (risk)
    • Manage risk by selecting the technique (s) to use for each exposure
      • Avoid
      • Insurance
      • Risk transfer
      • Retention
      • Reduce (Loss Control)
    • Implement & monitor your choices
types of risk
Types of Risk
  • Several types of risk
    • Financial
    • Time / Focus
    • Personal Health / Stress
    • Professional Reputation
    • VOSHA / EPA fines
    • Poor Customer / Public Relations
    • Criminal????

It’s not just about the money

risk management techniques
Risk Management Techniques
  • Avoid the behavior / operation
    • Not often possible; sometimes the best choice
  • Insurance—Transfers financial risk only - make sure your policies provide the specific types of insurance needed & that limits are sufficient
  • Retention-You absorb financial risk without benefit of insurance …not very practical
  • Risk transfer-when you pass financial responsibility for claims to a third party (contractor)
  • Risk Reduction / Loss Control
    • Goal is to reduce degree of hazard & the probability of loss
    • Very important regardless if risk is ‘retained’ or ‘transferred”
      • Even though you transfer the financial risk you still have a moral responsibility to do what you can to eliminate accidents to the public.
goal managing the risk
Goal - Managing the Risk
  • Manage the risk by selecting the technique (s) to use for each exposure
    • Not mutually exclusive-the best plan often involves combinations of several techniques
  • Most often the best choice is Insurance for financial risk and Loss Control for the other types of risk
  • Decision get help from your Legal & Insurance advisors if needed
loss exposures types
Loss Exposures - Types
  • Workplace injuries
  • Liability to others if negligent for various issues
    • General operations
    • Professional operations ( design / repair etc)
    • Damage to employees (Employment Liability)
  • Injuries to others or owned vehicles as a result of operating vehicles
  • Damage to owned equipment / property from several causes
  • Cindy is going to give you a brief description of each type of coverage.



Not an insurance company. It’s an alternative to commercial insurance.

Most important product is training and education.

Long term stable source of risk financing at an affordable price.

Broad coverages designed to meet the needs of public entities.

workers compensation
Workers’ Compensation
  • Who is covered – Statutory definition
  • What is covered – wages, medical costs, voc rehab
  • Notable exclusions - volunteers
  • How you can impact the cost through Loss Control & Safety Management
general liability
General Liability
  • Who is covered - Officials, trustees or employees of the Named Member , volunteers
  • What is covered – bodily injury, property damage, personal injury
  • Notable exclusions-Products Liability, Abuse and Molestation
  • How you can impact the cost through good Loss Control & Safety Management
professional liability
Professional Liability
  • Who is covered- Officials, trustees or employees of the Named Member , volunteers
  • What is covered – “wrongful acts”
  • Notable exclusions - Deliberate violation of any federal, state or local statute
  • How you can impact the cost through good Loss Control & Safety Management
employment liability
Employment Liability
  • Who is covered- Present and former members of Commissions, Boards or other units operated by Named Member, present and former employees of the Named Member, volunteers
  • What is covered-wrongful employment practices
  • Notable exclusions-labor grievances
  • How you can impact the cost through good Loss Control & Safety Management
  • Who is covered – owned, hired or non-owned scenarios
  • What is covered- Bodily Injury, Property Damage,  Physical Damage
  • Notable exclusions- Non-member passengers
  • How you can impact the cost through good Loss Control & Safety Management
  • Who is covered- Officials, trustees or employees of the Named Member , volunteers
  • What is covered-Scheduled buildings, contents and other structures
  • Notable exclusions-property that is not scheduled
  • How you can impact the cost through good Loss Control & Safety Management

Safety Culture

safety culture what is it
Safety CultureWhat is it ?
  • Dictionary - “The customary beliefs, social forms and material traits of a group”
  • Here’s one that works for me – It is a set of group norms that do the following:
    • Define what is OK or permissible & what isn’t OK with the group
    • Defines what behaviors get rewarded and which get punished
  • Individual attitudes lead to group culture (good or bad)
  • Most often requires changing individual behaviors
safety culture quiz
Safety Culture - quiz
  • Is safety part of the language and value structure in your town / department?
  • Is safety considered everyone’s job.
  • Are safety concerns evident in the interaction among staff and in their interaction with members of the public?
  • Are all safety policies enforced?
  • Is Safety reflected in job descriptions and annual performance evaluations?
  • Are supervisors held accountable for safety in their departments?
  • Are new employees trained on safety procedures before being allowed to work?
safety program process in action
Safety Program “Process” in Action
  • Program Assessment
  • Surveys
  • Historical loss Analysis
  • Policy / Plan/ SOG Development
  • OSHA Stds.
  • Written Programs
  • Safe work procedures
  • Training / Communicate
  • Your Programs
  • Competency Based
  • Employee Feedback
  • Supervision
  • Observation/Employee Monitoring
  • Feedback & Guidance
  • Disciplinary Action
what is a loss control safety management program
What is a Loss Control / Safety Management Program
  • Activities designed to assist management & employees in the recognition, understanding and control of hazards
    • Hazard
      • An unsafe practice, procedure or condition that , if left uncontrolled, causes or contributes to an incident
    • Hazard Recognition involves
      • Anticipation ( predictable is preventable)
      • Identification
      • Evaluation
      • Control
why is safety management important
Why is Safety Management Important
  • Moral
    • The right thing to do
    • No one wants to get hurt or cause damage to another
  • Goodcustomerrelations
    • Accidents especially to the public are just bad business they can send the wrong message to tax payers
  • Legal
    • OSHA
    • Other laws, rules & or regulations
  • Financial
    • Insured costs
      • Exp. mod
      • Discretionary credits & debits.
  • Uninsured costs
must be a cooperative effort
Must be a Cooperative Effort
  • Top management
  • Department heads
  • Supervisors
  • Workers
  • VLCT or other Insurance representatives Loss Control Consultant
who is responsible
Who is responsible
  • You!
  • You!
  • You!
  • You!
  • &You!
safety program elements
Safety Program Elements
  • Top Management Commitment & Support
    • Policy statement & distribution
  • Hazard identification
    • Loss analysis
    • Inspections (VLCT, VOSHA consultation, self)
    • Accident investigation
  • Hazard recognition and control
    • Policies & procedures
    • PPE
    • Engineering controls/Hazard elimination
  • Safety Training
top management commitment support
Top Management Commitment & Support
  • Develop a written safety policy
  • Assign one person as “key contact” person responsible for results
  • Line responsibility
    • Hold all employees accountable for working safely & achieving results
    • Include safety results in all performance evaluations
  • Establish a safety committee
    • Address all risk exposures
    • Not a substitutefor Management commitment or accountability
  • Maintain a high level of employee “awareness”
    • Frequent communication
    • Report progress, goals, and results
hazard identification
Hazard Identification
  • Historical Loss Analysis
  • Inspections
    • Employee involvement
    • Checklists for buildings/grounds, auto, workplace safety
    • Review each job/ location/ operation to identify hazards JSA (job safety analysis)
  • Accident Investigation/Review
    • Review incident reports
    • Identify corrective measures
    • Capture near-miss events
hazard recognition and control
Hazard Recognition and Control
  • Establish safe work procedures and a disciplinary system that is fair and universally understood
    • Positive reinforcement & Negative reinforcement
    • Supervisory observation
  • Provide PPE as needed based on PPE assessment
    • Equipment, Sizing, & Training
  • Plan for emergencies such as fire and natural disasters
  • Develop a complete preventative maintenance program
    • Equipment & tools
    • Vehicles
    • Buildings and grounds
safety training
Safety Training
  • All employees trained in hazards and/or topics associated with their responsibilities
  • New employee orientation includes safety and done BEFORE they start hazardous work
  • Encourage attendance at external training workshops, develop “train the trainer” concept
    • VLCT PACIF (if a participant); other insurance companies
    • Fire , Rescue & Police departments
    • Project Work Safe, Vermont Safety Council, Vt. Small Business etc.
  • Hazard or Standards based training



& Project Work Safe

record keeping overview
Record Keeping Overview
  • Maintain OSHA records
  • Document all training (who, what, when, where)
  • Maintain minutes of Safety Committee & other meetings
  • Maintain records of all surveys, inspections, & audits
    • Track recommendation compliance
  • Maintain records of all service complaints and action taken
  • Document regular & preventative maintenance
    • Equipment, vehicles, and Buildings
  • Document all incident & accident reviews
    • Supervisor’s report
    • Safety Committee review
    • Corrective actions ( who, what, when )
    • Track implementation of corrective actions to closure
vosha overview and update
VOSHA Overview and Update
  • Vermont OSHA (VOSHA)
    • State program authorized by Feds with annual review
    • Must be “at least as stringent”
  • Most Common Inspection Types
    • Programmed/General schedule
    • Complaints
    • Drive-bys/Special Emphasis
    • Most likely to receive “safety” inspector
  • Current Enforcement strategy
    • Heightened enforcement visibility
    • Increased focus on fines (go to General Fund)
common vosha issues in public works town garages
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Review of commonly cited (and identified) hazards in town garage settings
    • Outline key compliance requirements
    • Provide appropriate guidance
    • Reference standard
    • Not meant to be comprehensive
    • Can be developed and used as quick “hit list”/checklist
    • Almost always are reviewed by VOSHA inspectors
    • Exposures common to most/all garage settings
common vosha issues in public works town garages1
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Hazard Communication (1910.1200)
    • Inventory/List
    • All MSDS
    • Labeling
    • Employee Training
  • PPE Assessment (1910.132)
    • Hazard Assessment (JHA)
    • Document Assessment results
    • Specify appropriate PPE use
common vosha issues in public works town garages2
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Exits (1910.37)
    • Place signs over doors
    • May need to be lit if no emergency lighting (occupancy)
    • Must be kept unlocked and unobstructed when employees are present
  • GFCI Outlets
    • Now required by NFPA in all garage settings
  • Eye Wash (1910.151)
    • Needed if MSDS indicates 15-min eye flush in first-aid section
    • ANSI standard now requires “tepid” water-will need mixing valve if plumbed unit.
common vosha issues in public works town garages3
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Lead Chromate paint (1910.1025, 1010.1026, 1910.134)
    • Used on plows and vehicles
    • High hazard potential (occupational and external)
    • Triggers onerous regulatory requirements
    • Safely dispose of existing product and discontinue use
  • Bench Grinders (1910.215)
    • One of the most common “citations”
    • Work rest <1/8”
    • Tongue Guard <1/4”
    • Tongue guard must be “substantially constructed”
common vosha issues in public works town garages4
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Emergency Action Plan (EAP) 1910.38
    • Must be written if more than 10 employees
    • Specifies egress plan and routes, congregation area, roles, etc.
    • Post egress routes in facilities
    • Training required to fulfill roles/responsibilities
  • Fire Extinguishers (1910.57)
    • Annual comprehensive inspection (vendor)
    • Monthly inspection (initial attached tag)
    • Locate in facility, vehicles, proper mounting
    • Training in use required if EAP mandates employees to fight fire
common vosha issues in public works town garages5
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Compressed Gases (1910.101 & 102)
    • Cylinders stored upright and “restrained”
    • Valves protected with caps when not in use
    • Separate O2 and Fuel gases by 20’
    • Acetylene pressure should never exceed 15 psig (usually much lower operating pressures used)
    • Acetylene cylinder valve (open max 1 ½ turn, usually ¾)
  • Housekeeping & Load rating (1910.22)
    • Excess combustible storage, Trip hazards, clear paths
    • VOSHA cited this “serious” in one town
    • Mezzanine’s should have load rating posted
common vosha issues in public works town garages6
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • PPE usage (1910.132, 133, 134, 135)
    • Common source of claims
    • Often cited when employees do not use/use improperly
    • Includes respirators, hearing protection, eye/face protection, chaps, head protection, etc.
  • Compressor/Boilers (1910.169, NFPA)
    • Safety valve nameplate w/pressure rating
    • Periodic inspection
      • non-fired 3 years
      • fired is 2 years
common vosha issues in public works town garages7
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Respiratory Protection (1910.134)
    • Written program needed
    • Medical evaluation (use questionnaire w/medical review)
    • Appropriate selection based on hazard
    • Training on fitting, use, maintenance and storage
    • Fit testing for tight-fitting devices
    • Common exposures include:
      • Dust from sweeping, blasting, blowing, grinding, sanding, etc.
      • Solvents from spray finishing operations
      • Possible confined space entry and supplied air or SCBA use
    • Note: single-use filtering facepieces used voluntarily for non-regulatory exposures only require App D info
common vosha issues in public works town garages8
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Welding Safety (1910.252, 253, 254)
    • Acetylene safety as previously noted
    • Use screens where work permits
    • Fire watch in the presence of quantities of combustibles
  • Spray Finishing (1910.107)
    • Use spray cans with ventilation or outdoors
    • Spray finishing indoors creates “spray area”
    • No open flame within 20’, ventilation required
    • Wiring within area –Class I, Div 1; outside of area but within 20’ must meet Class I, Div. 2 Hazardous locations.
    • Creates potential airborne exposure concerns
    • Triggers respiratory protection issue
common vosha issues in public works town garages9
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Storage & Disposal of combustible rags/cloths
    • If oily or solvent filled, must be placed in non-combustible container with tight-fitting lid-not in trash!
    • Consider hazardous waste (generator) implications
  • Portable Power tools
    • Used according to mfg directions
    • Retain guarding and functionality (i.e. trigger/release)
    • Compressed air not used for cleaning unless < 30 psi
    • Maintain/monitor condition of power cords
common vosha issues in public works town garages10
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Flammable Storage (1910.106)
    • > 25 gal of Class 1A flammable triggers storage cabinet requirement. (our recommendation is if you store any quantities of gas, it be stored in a Flammable liquid cabinet)
    • Best practice is to store low flashpoint liquids in cabinet
    • Chainsaw gas, fuels, alcohols, paint solvents, etc.
    • Oils, brake and hydraulic fluids are combustible-not flammable
    • Combustible storage in boiler rooms-NO
  • Extension Cords (1910.334)
    • Use permanent wiring if other than short term use
    • Grounding pin present
    • Inspection and removal of damaged cords
common vosha issues in public works town garages11
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Bloodborne Pathogens (1910.1030)
    • Typically will not apply to most operations (exposure is not “reasonably anticipated”)
    • Town may still offer Hep B vaccine as “public benefit”
    • BBP awareness training is not required – but is best practice
    • Employees may have exposure that is not required by their job duties (i.e. auto accident)
    • If they have exposure incident – use good Samaritan policy to provide “post-exposure” follow-up.
common vosha issues in public works town garages12
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Electrical Panel (1910.303, 304, 305)
    • Missing/open breaker slots
    • Unlabeled breakers
    • Storage in front of panel
  • Open “mechanics” pits (1910.94, 1910.23)
    • Poses electrical wiring issue (Class 1 Div 1 Haz. Locations)
      • Tools
      • Lights
      • Ventilation
    • Ventilation requirements
    • Barrier needed for fall prevention
    • Recommend non-use and covering or fill-in
common vosha issues in public works town garages13
Common VOSHA ”Issues” in Public Works/Town Garages
  • Use of Solid-fuel burning devices in automotive garages
    • Current NFPA prohibits
    • State Fire Safety Div. can order replacement
    • Towns should begin considering alternative heating systems
  • Highest risk units include:
    • Custom-made “wood stoves”
    • Any situation where multiple heating units vent into the same flue
    • Any wood-fired unit at ground level
    • Units not designed for wood fuel usage



  • Defined the Risk Management Process and explored risks you face each day
  • We talked about risk management technique and related each to the risks you identified
  • We made the case for the fact that buying insurance isn’t enough you need to reduce the probability of loss through Safety / Loss Control efforts
  • We discussed the highlights of the most common forms of commercial insurance – including how Safety Efforts can reduce cost
  • We defined “Safety Culture” and introduced a behavior change model to achieve it…”It’s all about changing individual behaviors”
  • Outlined key elements of an effective safety program that we will use to complete our self assessment