The Asian TigersCh. 17 Sec. 3 Bell work #3 The herald gazette don’t review science fiction movies such as robot or space creatures however popular it might be
Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea The four are often called “Asian tigers.”
Introduction • Taiwan is one of four small Asian lands that have vaulted into the class of “newly industrialized countries.” Besides Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea are also known for their aggressive growth. The four are often called “Asian tigers.” Although they differ in important ways, all have followed similar roads to modernization since 1945.
Taiwan and Hong Kong • The four Asian tigers were all influenced to some degree by China and Confucian traditions. • Taiwan fell to Japan in 1895 during the Age of Imperialism. Taiwan first set up light industries such as textiles. Later, it developed heavy industry. In the 1960s, the Green Revolution helped Taiwan’s agriculture become more productive. Trade boomed, industrial cities grew and in time Taiwan’s standard of living rose to one of the highest in Asia. Backed y economic success, the government slowly allowed people more freedom.
Hong Kong • Hong Kong’s economy today is based on trade and light industry such as electronics and textiles. It is also a major financial center with many foreign banks and a busy stock market. Wealth form these profitable industries helped Hong Kong modernize. • Hong Kong’s amazing growth was also due in part to its location on China’s doorstep. In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kong to China. China stood to profit form Hong Kong’s bustling free-market economy. But many Hong Kong residents remain nervous about the future. They fear the PRC’s power and use of repression against protests. But as one Hong Kong resident noted. “We don’t believe we have any control over events. So we just wait and see what happens.”
Singapore • The smallest Asian tiger is the city-state of Singapore. Under British rule, Singapore grew to include not only Malayans and British merchants and sailors but also Chinese and Indian immigrants. • The British brought in Chinese workers to process tin and rubber form Malaya. In time, the Chinese became the dominant ethnic group and their Confucian traditions shaped the local culture.
Lee Kwan Yew’s Singapore • Lee joined Singapore’s struggle for independence first form Britain in 1959 and then form nearby Malaya in 1963. for 30 years, Lee was Singapore’s prime minister and remade the city-state. Every resident, he said, “must live up to our motto From Each His Best.” He set high standards for Singapore. • Lee was an autocratic ruler. In elections, he claimed to win 99 percent fo the vote. He jailed those who opposed him too strongly. One story tells how Lee treated and independent minded critic and newspaper owner. Lee leaned across his desk, seized the man’s collar, and said: “I’m a thug, you’re a thug, and as one thug to another, you’ll do what I say!” • Yet under lee, Singapore was transformed into an economic powerhouse.
Lee • As Singapore’s economy grew, its standard of living rose. The government organized an outstanding public housing program. Almost all married couples are home owners, thanks to government loans. • Lee turned one of the dirtiest, most crime ridden cities in the world into one of the cleanest and safest.
The Korean War • In 1950, North Korean forces invaded the south, seeking to unify the country. They almost overran the peninsula. Backed by the UN, the U.S. organized and international force to help South Korea. • UN forces, mostly Americans and South Koreans, were commanded by United States general Douglas Macarthur. After landing troops behind enemy lines, he drove the invaders back across the 38th parallel. He continued to push north ward toward the Yalu River on the border of China. • Macarthur's Success moved China into action. Mao Zedong feared an American invasion. Together they pushed the UN forces back to the 38th parallel.
An Economic Powerhouse • Economically, South Korea leaped ahead of the north after the mid-1960s. At first, it exported textiles and inexpensive goods. Then, it shifted to higher priced exports such as automobiles.. • By the 1990s, South Korea was an economic powerhouse.
The Totalitarian North • Under Kim II Sung, North Korea recovered form the war. State-owned industries and collective farms increased output. By the late 1960s , however, growth slowed. Kim’s emphasis on self-reliance kept North Korea isolated form much of the world. Yet when its old partners, the Soviet Union and China, tried out economic reforms in the 1980s, North Korea clung to hard-line communism. • Kim’s death in 1994, his son Kim Jong II, the “Dear Leader” took over. He faced growing problems. • Then failed government policies and terrible floods destroyed harvests, bringing widespread hunger. By 1997, North Korea had to accept food aid from the U.S. and other nations to prevent mass starvation. Some observers wondered if the disaster could undermine Kim’s power.
The Nuclear Issue • Like several emerging nations, North Korea tried to develop nuclear power plants and weapons. Under intense pressure form the U.S., North Korea agreed to end its nuclear weapons program. In exchange the U.S. was to supply North Korea with oil and start the process of diplomatic recognition of North Korea.