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Applied Beef Cattle Breeding and Selection. Larry V. Cundiff ARS-USDA-U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. 2008 Beef Cattle Production Management Series-Module II Great Plains Veterinary Education Center University of Nebraska, Clay Center June 4, 2008. Home Work Assignment for Module 2.

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slide1

Applied Beef Cattle Breeding and Selection

Larry V. Cundiff

ARS-USDA-U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

2008 Beef Cattle Production Management Series-Module II

Great Plains Veterinary Education Center

University of Nebraska, Clay Center

June 4, 2008

slide2

Home Work Assignment for Module2

Assume you are commercial breeder using a two-breed rotation of Angus and Herefords. You need to select three bulls for use this year to maintain your breeding program. Using the tables of breed averages provided, the 2007 Across Breed EPD Table provided, and the web sites of the Angus and Hereford breeds answer the following questions.

slide3

Home Work Assignment for Module2

  • For birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and Milk, what is the breed average EPD for Angus bulls (within breed average for each trait)?
  • From Angus web site: BW = 2.2, WW = 42, YW = 77, Milk = 20
  • From table handed out: BW= 2.3, WW = 38, YW = 65, Milk = 15

2) For birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and Milk, what is the breed average EPD for Hereford bulls (within breed average for each trait)?

From Hereford web site: BW = 3.6, WW = 40, YW = 67, Milk = 16

From table handed out: BW = 3.7, WW = 3, YW = 65, Milk = 15

slide4

Home Work Assignment for Module 2

  • For birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and Milk, what is the breed average Across Breed – EPD (AB-EPD) for each trait?
  • For Angus:
  • BW = 0 + 2.2 = 2.2
  • WW = 0 + 42 = 42
  • YW = 0 + 77 = 77
  • MILK = 0 + 20 = 20
  • For Herefords:
  • BW = 2.7 + 3.6 = 6.3
  • WW = -3.1 + 40 = 36.9
  • YW = -12.7 + 67 = 54.3
  • MILK = - 15.7 + 16 = 0.3
slide5

Home Work Assignment for Module2

In selecting three bulls of each breed, what range in AB-EPDs would you like to specify for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and Milk? Considering traits you wish to emphasize in your breeding programs, discuss why you have specified these ranges for these traits.

Answer is arbitrary, goals not same for everyone

For purposes of this exercise, I chose AB-EPDs bracketing the midpoint of breed average AB-EPDs for Angus and Herefords.

BW WW YW Milk

Angus 2.7 42 77 20

Hereford 6.3 36.9 54.3 0.3

Mid-point 4.1 40.5 65 10

Range 3 to 5 38-43 60-70 5 to 15

slide6

Home Work Assignment for Module2

  • Then back solving, determine the range for within breed EPDs that this AB-EPD range would allow in the Angus and Hereford bulls for birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, and Milk? Discuss why you have specified these ranges.
  • BW WW YW Milk
  • Angus 3 to 5 38 to 43, 60 to 70, 5 to 15
  • Hereford
  • AB-EPD 3 to 5 38 to 43 60 to 70 5 to 15
  • minus Factor - ( 2.7) - (- 3.1) - (-12.7) - (-15.7)
  • w/in breed range .3 to 2.3 42.1 to 46.1 73 to 83 21 to 31
  • Searching Angus data base (8 “main sires” were available)
  • Searching Hereford base 570 bulls were available
slide7

ACROSS BREED EPDs (AB-EPDs)

(Notter and Cundiff, 1992)

BIF Proceedings Annually(Van Vleck and Cundiff)

(Kuehn et al. 2007, 2008)

Tables produced to provide for comparison of individuals in different breeds on the same EPD scale for BW, WW, YW and MILK

ab epds
AB-EPDs
  • Within breed EPDs are accurate predictors of purebred and crossbred performance.
  • AB-EPDs are most useful for selecting bulls of two or more breeds for use in crossbreeding.
  • Uniformity in AB-EPDs should be emphasized for rotational crossing.
  • Divergence in AB-EPDs should be emphasized in selection of bulls for terminal crossing or calving ease in first calf heifers.
slide9

Home Work Assignment for Module2

Other traits that can be considered based on within breed EPD available:

Angus

Trait CED YH SC MW MH CW Marb RE FAT

Mean 5 0.3 .33 32 .5 5 .16 .16 -.001

Hereford

Trait CED CEM SC FAT RE IMF%

Mean -.2 0.5 0.6 .004 .14 0.00

adjustment factors to add to epds of sixteen breeds to estimate ab epds spring 2008
ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO ADD TO EPDs OF SIXTEEN BREEDS TO ESTIMATE AB-EPDs (SPRING, 2008)

Breed BWT WNWT YRWT MILK

Hereford2.7 -2.9 - 12.8 -15.3

Angus 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Shorthorn 6.5 31.0 44.1 18.1

S. Devon 3.3 3.6 -5.7 -5.6

Brahman 12.5 38.0 2.5 27.5

Simmental 5.4 23.3 16.9 13.9

Limousin 4.0 -3.8 - 27.8 -11.9

Charolais 9.6 39.0 47.3 2.9

Maine Anjou 7.0 -3.6 - 31.6 - 6.0

Gelbvieh 4.4 5.0 - 22.4 7.0

Tarentaise 3.0 31.5 18.2 20.5

Salers 4.2 30.3 43.4 13.1

Red Angus 2.8 - 5.2 0.9 - 3.9

Braunvieh 6.2 29.4 17.8 25.3

Brangus 5.8 27.3 28.8 - 3.9

Beefmaster 9.2 45.1 45.1 - 2.1

(Kuehn et al., 2008)

breeds means and deviations from angus on industry scale spring 2008 genetic evaluations lb
BREEDS MEANS AND DEVIATIONS FROM ANGUS ON INDUSTRY SCALE (SPRING, 2008 GENETIC EVALUATIONS), LB

Breed BWT WNWT YRWT MILK

Hereford 89 ( 4.1) 519 (- 4.4) 884 (- 22.3) - 14.6

Angus 85 ( 0.0) 524 ( 0.0) 906 ( 0.0) 4.7

Shorthorn 91 ( 6.5) 527 ( 3.8) 898 ( - 8.2) 5.3

S. Devon 88 ( 3.5) 525 ( 1.3) 899 ( - 7.5) 0.3

Brahman 96(11.9) 533 ( 9.6) 854 (- 52.3) 18.1

Simmental 89 ( 4.7) 538 (14.2) 904 ( - 2.3) 3.6

Limousin 88 ( 3.5) 518 (- 5.6) 876 (- 30.1) - 7.7

Charolais 93 ( 8.6) 543 (19.2) 916 ( 10.0) - 5.5

Maine Anjou 91 ( 6.7) 518 (- 5.1) 878 (- 28.9) - 1.4

Gelbvieh 89 ( 4.1) 527 ( 3.5) 881 (- 24.9) 8.7

Tarentaise 87 ( 2.3) 518 (- 6.0) 859 (- 47.3) 6.2

Salers 88 ( 3.1) 529 ( 5.9) 902 ( - 4.7) 6.1

Red Angus 85 ( 0.9) 507 (-16.1) 884 (- 21.9) - 3.1

Braunvieh 89 ( 4.2) 517 (- 7.0) 856 ( -50.0) 10.0

Brangus 90 ( 5.1) 533 ( 9.1) 898 ( - 8.7) - 10.5

Beefmaster 92 ( 7.4) 534 (10.8) 887 (- 19.1) - 15.6

Kuehn et al. (2008)

slide12

REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS FOR CARCASS

TRAITS IN STEERS PROGENY (n=1224)

ON EPDs OF THEIR SIRES (s = 264)

IN EIGHT BREEDS

Marbling 0.74 + .11

Rib eye area (REA) 1.36 + .17

Fat thickness (FAT) 0.69 + .13

Kuehn et al. (2008)

mean epds for carcass traits spring 2008 evaluations
MEAN EPDs FOR CARCASS TRAITS (Spring 2008 Evaluations)

Breed MARB (sc) REA (in2) FAT (in)

Angus 0.27 0.12 +0.009

S. Devon 0.30 0.24 - 0.030

Simmental 0.10 0.04 + 0.010

Limousin 0.01 0.38 .----

Charolais 0.03 0.19 -0.001

Maine Anjou 0.21 0.18 + 0.000

Salers 0.00 0.02 + 0.000

Red Angus 0.06 0.04 - 0.001

(Kuehn et. al., 2008)

slide14

ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO ADD TO EPDs OF EIGHT

BREEDS TO ESTIMATE AB-EPDs (SPRING, 2008)

Breed MARB (sc) REA (in2) FAT (in)

Angus 0.00 0.00 +0.000

S. Devon - 0.57 0.07 - 0.008

Simmental - 0.84 0.67 - 0.335

Limousin - 1.08 0.58 .----

Charolais - 0.79 0.43 - 0.335

Maine Anjou - 1.08 0.84 - 0.305

Salers - 0.10 0.52 - 0.276

Red Angus - 0.02 - 0.13 - 0.062

(Kuehn et al., 2008)

carcass trait breed means and deviations from angus spring 2008 genetic evaluations
CARCASS TRAIT BREED MEANS AND DEVIATIONS FROM ANGUS (SPRING, 2008 GENETIC EVALUATIONS)

Breed MARB (sc) REA (in2) FAT(in)

Angus 5.78 ( 0.00) 12.21 ( 0.00) 0.558 ( 0.000)

S. Devon 5.24 (- 0.54) 12.40 ( 0.19) 0.511 (- 0.047)

Simmental 4.77 (- 1.01) 12.80 ( 0.59) 0.224 (- 0.334)

Limousin 4.44 (- 1.34) 13.05 ( 0.84) .------------

Charolais 4.75 (- 1.03) 12.71 ( 0.50) 0.193 (-0.365)

Maine Anjou 4.64 (- 1.14) 13.11 ( 0.90) 0.244 (- 0.314)

Salers 5.41 (- 0.37) 12.63 ( 0.42) 0.273 (- 0.285)

Red Angus 5.55 (- 0.23) 12.00 (- 0.21) 0.486 (- 0.072) - 3.1

Kuehn et al. (2008)

slide16

SYSTEMATIC CROSSBREEDING OR COMPOSITE POPULATIONS

Use:

Heterosis

Breed differences

Complementarity among breeds to match genetic potential :

Consumer preferences

Feed resources

Climatic environment

slide17

SIRE BREEDS USED IN THE GERMPLASM EVALUATION PROGRAM AT THE USMARC

Cycle I Cycle II Cycle III Cycle IV Cycle V Cycle VI Cycle VII Cycle VIII

70-72 73-74 75-76 86-90 92-94 97-98 99-00 01-02

F1 Crosses (Hereford or Angus dams) a

Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford

Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus

Jersey Red Poll Brahman Longhorn Tuli Wagyu Red Angus Beefmaster

S. Devon Braunvieh Sahiwal Salers Boran Norweg. Red Limousin Brangus

Limousin Gelbvieh Pinzgauer Galloway Belg. Blue Sw. Red&Wh. Charolais Bonsmara

Simmental Maine Anj. Tarentaise Nellore Brahman Friesian Simmental Romosinuano

Charolais Chianina Shorthorn Piedmontese Gelbvieh

Piedmontese

3-way crossesCharolais

Hereford Hereford Gelbvieh Angus Angus Pinzgauer

Brahman Brangus

Devon Santa Gertrudis

Holstein

  • a
    • Sire breeds mated to Angus and Hereford females, Composite MARC III (1/4 Angus, Hereford, Red Poll and Pinzgauer) cows were also included in Cycles V, VI, and VII.
slide18

Beef Breed Registrations

National Pedigreed Livestock Council

slide19

Cycle VII Calving Ease (UA and CD) and Birth weight (BW)

Sire of Calf Means (4 –10 yr olds)

Sire breed UA CD BW

% sc lb

Hereford 96 1.24 90.4

Angus 99 1.01 84.0

Red Angus 99 1.06 84.5

240

Simmental 98 1.10 92.2

Gelbvieh 98 1.10 88.7

Limousin 98 1.13 89.5

Charolais 93 1.40 93.7

Avg.

LSD <.05 3.6 0.21 3.3

Sire of Calf (Direct)

  • Angus and Red Angus sired calves excel in calving ease (unassisted = UA) due to lighter birth wt.
  • In 30 years, relative to Hereford-Angus crosses, Continental breeds have reduced birth wt (9 vs. 4.2 lb) and improved direct calving ease, especially Simmental and Gelbvieh (formerly, 9% more assisted).

Sire of Dam Means - Total Maternal

Sire 2-yr-olds

breed UA CD BW

% sc lb

Hereford 74 1.86 81.5

Angus 72 1.96 79.8

Red Angus 68 2.19 78.2 36.2 225

Simmental 86 1.54 79.6

Gelbvieh 64 2.24 83.6

Limousin 68 2.00 80.3

Charolais 69 2.09 81.6 Avg. 1.

LSD <.05 19 0.64 4.4

Sire of Dam (Total Maternal)

Differences in maternal calving ease and birth weight were not significant in Cycle I and II, and are still not significant.

However, maternal calving ease has been improved in Simmental relative to HA & AH (from 6% more to 13% less assistance in 2-yr-olds).

slide21

British (H, A, Ra) and Continental (S, G, L, and C) sired progeny do not differ significantly in Efficiency of Gain (live wt gain, lb/Mcal) to age or weight end points.

slide22

Complementarity

Progeny by British sire breeds (H, A, Ra) were more efficient (lb live wt gain/Mcal) than those by Continental (S, G, L, C) sire breeds to fatness endpoints

slide23

Progeny of Continental European sire breeds (S, G, L, and C) had more efficient gains (Live wt gain/Mcal and retail product/Mcal) than progeny of British sire breeds (H, A, and Ra) to weight of retail product (496 lb retail product) endpoints

slide24

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT AND CARCASS TRAITS

OF F1 STEERS (445 DAYS)

Final Retail Marb- USDA WB

Sire wt product ling Choice shear

Breed N lb % lb sc % lb

F test ** ** ** ** ** **

Hereford 97 1322 60.7 480 526 70 9.1

Angus 98 1365 59.2 488 584 95 8.9

Red Angus 93 1333 59.1 474 590 93 9.2

Simmental 92 1363 63.0 522 528 66 9.5

Gelbvieh 90 1312 63.8 509 506 58 9.9

Limousin 84 1286 63.7 504 504 57 9.5

Charolais 95 1349 63.7 523 517 62 9.6

LSD < .05 40 1.3 16 17 0.7 0.6

slide26
USDA QUALITY GRADE X YIELD GRADEFOR STEERS WITH SIMMENTAL, GELBVIEH, LIMOUSIN, AND CHAROLAIS SIRES (n = 361)
british sired steers 22 yield grade 4 s 14 usda select 86 usda choice

Matching Genotype to Consumer Preferences

British sired steers: 22 % Yield grade 4’s 14 % USDA Select86% > USDA Choice

Continental sired steers: 3.3 Yield Grade 4 0.3 % USDA Standard, 42% USDA Select, 58% > USDA Choice

Results are consistent with earlier results: steers with 50:50 ratios of Continental to British inheritance receive fewer severe discounts for yield grade 4 or USDA standard grade carcasses than steers with higher or lower ratios of Continental to British inheritance.

slide28

BREED GROUP MEANS (DEVIATIONS FROM HA & AH) FOR MATURE WEIGHT (ADJUSTED TO CONDITION SCORE OF 5.5) OF F1 CROSS COWS IN CYCLES I AND II (BIRTH YEARS: 1970-74) COMPARED TO CYCLE VII (BIRTH YEARS 1999-2000), KG

(0)

(- 3)

(- 5)

(- 42)

(- 11)

(- 20)

LSD < 26

(0)

(29)

(34)

(15)

(53)

slide29

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION AND MATERNAL TRAITS OF F1 FEMALES MATED TO PRODUCE THEIR FIRST CALVES AT 2 YEARS OF AGE (2001 & 2002)

Sire Calf crop Calving Unassist. Birth 200-d wt per

breed born wnd. diff. births wt. calf cow exp

of female No. % % score % lb lb lb

Hereford 80 92 70 1.9 74 81.5 413 292

Angus 84 83 76 2.0 72 79.8 424 325

Red Angus 104 86 76 2.2 68 78.2 415 317

Simmental 98 86 69 1.5 86 79.6 442 309

Gelbvieh 109 79 68 2.2 64 83.6 447 307

Limousin 109 85 73 2.0 68 80.3 429 313

Charolais 97 87 73 2.1 69 81.6 430 315

LSD < .05 14 15 .6 19 4.4 21 68

slide30

SIRE BREED MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION AND MATERNAL TRAITS OF F1 FEMALES MATED TO PRODUCE THEIR FIRST CALVES AT 3-5 YEARS OF AGE (2002-2004)

Sire Calf crop Calving Unassist. Birth 200-d wt per

breed born wnd. diff. births wt. calf cow exp

of female No. % % score % lb lb lb

Hereford 80 92 70 1.9 74 81.5 413 292

Angus 84 83 76 2.0 72 79.8 424 325

Red Angus 104 86 76 2.2 68 78.2 415 317

Simmental 98 86 69 1.5 86 79.6 442 309

Gelbvieh 109 79 68 2.2 64 83.6 447 307

Limousin 109 85 73 2.0 68 80.3 429 313

Charolais 97 87 73 2.1 69 81.6 430 315

LSD < .05 14 15 .6 19 4.4 10 68

slide31

Differences in reproduction rate, and calf survival to weaning not significant.

Feed resources were not limiting!

Cows were fed silage and hay in winter to meet

nutrient requirements for maintenance and gestation.

slide33

Genotype X Environment Interaction

Y

Y

Y

E1 E2

E1 E2

E1 E2

Interaction

Change in

ranking

Interaction

Change in

magnitude

No

interaction

slide35

F

100

Interval

from

Calving

to First

Observed

Estrus

(Days)

90

80

HF

70

60

H

Med. High Very High

(Energy Level)

Postpartum interval of Hereford (H) Hereford-Holstein, and Holstein fall calving females on three levels of supplementation during lactation as 2-, 3-, and 4- year olds (Kropp et al., 1972; Holloway, et al, 1973; Lusby et al., 1974)

slide37

Matching Genetic

Potential to the

Climatic Environment

(Olson et al., 1991)

slide38

OUTPUT/INPUT DIFFERENCES AMONG BOS INDICUS X BOS TAURUS

AND BOS TAURUS X BOS TAURUS F1 COWS (Green et al., 1991)

___________________________________________________

Overall _____Breed group (ratios)_______

Item mean HAX BmX SwX PzX_

Progeny (126 d)

Wt gain,kg 129 92 108 103 99

ME cons., Mcal 592 112 92 94 102

Dams (126 d)

Milk prod. kg/d 7.0 90 105 101 100

Cow wt., kg 561 98 105 97 100

Fat Probe, cm .78 91 102 112 95

ME cons., Mcal 3292 93 106 97 104

Efficiency

Prog Gain per

Mcal ME, kg/Mcal .033 96 104 106 95

____________________________________________________

slide39

MORTALITY IN CALVES WITH DIFFERENT RATIOS OF

BOS INDICUS TO BOS TAURUS INHERITANCE

Bos indicus to Bos taurus ratio

Temp (Fo) 0:100 25:75 50:50 75:25 Mean

>52 2 0 4 1 2

46 to < 52 2 5 0 4 2

41 to <46 5 0 4 36 11

36 to < 41 2 4 4 41 13

30 to < 36 1 2 22 37 16

< 30 3 8 12 9 8

(Josey et al., 1993)

slide40

Breed Effects as Deviations from Angus

Average Daily Gain, lb.

Month

slide41

Shear

Shear, lb.

Bos Indicus to Bos Taurus Ratio

slide42

TRADEOFFS

  • Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses excel in
    • Weaning weight per cow exposed
    • Cow efficiency
      • especially in subtropical climates, but
      • these advantages are tempered by:
    • Older age at puberty
    • Reduced meat tenderness
    • Reduced gain and feed efficiency during winter
      • months in temperate environments
    • Increased mortality during spring calving in
      • temperate environments
slide43

SIRE BREEDS USED IN THE GERMPLASM EVALUATION PROGRAM AT THE USMARC

Cycle I Cycle II Cycle III Cycle IV Cycle V Cycle VI Cycle VII Cycle VIII

70-72 73-74 75-76 86-90 92-94 97-98 99-00 01-02

F1 Crosses (Hereford or Angus dams) a

Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford Hereford

Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus Angus

Jersey Red Poll Brahman Longhorn Tuli Wagyu Red Angus Beefmaster

S. Devon Braunvieh Sahiwal Salers Boran Norweg. Red Limousin Brangus

Limousin Gelbvieh Pinzgauer Galloway Belg. Blue Sw. Red&Wh. Charolais Bonsmara

Simmental Maine Anj. Tarentaise Nellore Brahman Friesian Simmental Romosinuano

Charolais Chianina Shorthorn Piedmontese Gelbvieh

Piedmontese

3-way crossesCharolais

Hereford Hereford Gelbvieh Angus Angus Pinzgauer

Brahman Brangus

Devon Santa Gertrudis

Holstein

  • a
    • Sire breeds mated to Angus and Hereford females, Composite MARC III (1/4 Angus, Hereford, Red Poll and Pinzgauer) cows were also included in Cycles V, VI, and VII.
sire breed means for final weight and carcass traits of f1 steers 447 d
SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT ANDCARCASS TRAITS OF F1 STEERS (447 d)

Final Marb- USDA 14-d

Sire wt Retail product ling Choice Shear

breed No. kg % kg score % kg

Hereford 106 576 61.9 204 520 70.3 4.8

Angus 101 580 62.2 206 556 84.6 4.0

Brahman

Original 43 533 64.1 199 485 29.4 6.1

Current 76 544 63.8 204 466 30.4 5.9

Boran 151 506 62.6 181 504 47.2 5.1

Tuli 162 503 63.4 184 525 63.8 4.6

Nellore 97 555 65.0 211 500 51.4 ----

LSD < .05 48 1.7 8 30 22.2 0.6

slide47

BREED GROUP MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION

AND MATERNAL TRAITS

2-years of age 3 to 7 years of age

Calf 200-day wt Calf 200-day wt.

Age at crop per per cow crop per per cow

Sire breed puberty, wnd. calf exposed wnd. calfexposed

of female No. days % lb lb % lb lb

Hereford 152 355 73.8 419 300 88.7 474 422

Angus 130 351 74.4 437 313 86.3 493 426

Avg. 282 353 74.1 428 307 87.5 483 424

Brahman

Original 82 429 54.3 456 238 85.9 511 440

Current 208 423 69.6 476 319 82.7 521 430

Avg. 244 426 62.0 466 279 83.2 516 435

Boran 206 396 83.3 444 357 86.2 488 421

Tuli 244 371 74.6 413 296 84.1 471 397

Piedmont. 75 348 75.3 441 321 85.3 476 404

Belg. Blue 237 348 71.0 436 300 79.0 502 398

LSD.05 13 13.9 18 62 6.7 14 36

slide48

Genotype X Environment

Interaction

Cycle VIII

MARC LSU

M&F F

Hereford X

Angus X

Beefmaster X X

Brangus X X

Romosinuano X X

Bonsmara X X

slide49

TABLE 14. SIRE BREED MEANS FOR FINAL WEIGHT AND CARCASS TRAITS OF

F1 STEERS PRODUCED IN CYCLE VIII (426 DAYS, 2001 & 2002 CALF CROPS)

Final Retail USDA W-B

Sire wt product Marb. Choice shear Breed N kg % kg score % kg

Hereford 102 564.7 61.8 211.3 515 52 3.67

Angus 103 582.0 60.0 212.7 548 71 3.44

Brangus 107 569.7 62.1 217.7 497 42 3.90

Beefmaster 103 587.9 61.2 218.6 483 35 4.08

Bonsmara 104 537.5 63.4 210.5 487 37 3.67

Romosinuano 102 521.6 64.4 205.0 488 37 3.76

LSD < .05 13.6 1.1 5.9 24 13 0.22

slide50

BREED GROUP MEANS FOR REPRODUCTION AND MATERNAL

TRAITS OF F1 FEMALES IN CYCLE VIII OF THE GPE PRORAM AT MARC

2-years of age 3 to 4 years of age

Sire Age Calf 200-day wt Calf 200-day wt.

breed at crop per per cow crop per per cow

of puberty wnd. calf exposed wnd. calf exposed

female No. % lb lb % lb lb

Hereford 101 329 76 452 346 92 525 481 Angus 104 310 69 474 326 92 547 505

Brangus 45 341 85 481 406 88 553 489

Beefmaster 51 450 86 485 417 94 538 511

Bonsmara 48 352 69 454 317 90 525 478

Romosinuano 50 362 79 414 328 97 480 469

LSD < .05 12 15 22 72 8 24 46

slide51

Matching Genetic

Potential to the

Climatic Environment

  • In hotter more humid climates of the gulf coast cattle with ~ 50% tropical adapted germplasm may be optimal.
  • In more intermediate subtropics, cattle with ~25% tropically adapted germplasm may be optimal.
slide52

Breeds Grouped into Biological Types for Seven Criteria

Growth Lean Marbling

rate & to (Intra- Age Milk

mature fat muscular Tender- at pro- Tropical

Breed size ratio fat) ness puberty duction adaptation

AngusXXXX XX XXXX XXX XX XXX X

Red AngusXXXX XX XXXX XXX XX XXX X

HerefordXXXX XX XXX XXX XXX XX X

Shorthorn XXXX XX XXXX XXX XX XXX X

GelbviehXXXX XXXXX X XX XX XXXX X

Simmental XXXXX XXXX XX XX XXX XXXX X

Limousin XXXX XXXXX X XX XXXX X X

Charolais XXXXX XXXXX XX XX XXXX XX X

Romosinuano X XXX XX XX XXX XXX XXX

Tuli XX XXX XXX XX XXX XXX XXX

Brangus XXXX XXX XXX XX XXX XXX XXX

Beefmaster XXXX XXX XX XX XXX XXX XXX

Santa Gertrudis X XXX XXX XX XXX XXX XXX XXX

Bonsmara XXX XXX XX XX XXX XXX XXX

Brahman XXXX XXXX XX X XXXXX XXXX XXXX

Nellore XXXX XXXX XX X XXXXX XXX XXXX

Boran XXX XXX XX X XXX XXX XXXX

Sahiwal XX XXXX XX X XXXX XXX XXXX

slide53

A COMPILATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS INVOLVING TROPICALLY ADAPTED BEEF CATTLE BREEDS

S-243 and S-277 Multi-state Research Projects

Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 405

Proceedings: Tropically Adapted Breeds

Southern Section ASAS

February 8, 2005

Little Rock, Arkansas

www.lsuagcenter.com/en/crops livestock/

livestock/beef cattle/breeding genetics/trpoical+breeds.htm

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BREED DIFFERENCES

an important genetic resource

  • Cross breeding or composite populations can be used to exploit:
    • HETEROSIS
    • COMPLEMENTARITY among breeds optimize performance for important traits and match genetic potential with:
  • Market preferences
  • Feed resources
  • Climatic environment