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Gender, crime and justice . Crime and Deviance . You will be able to . Understand the main gender differences in recorded patterns of offending, Understand and evaluate the debates about the treatment of men and women in the criminal justice system,

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you will be able to
You will be able to
  • Understand the main gender differences in recorded patterns of offending,
  • Understand and evaluate the debates about the treatment of men and women in the criminal justice system,
  • Evaluate explanations of the relationship between women and crime and between men and crime.
key points of focus
Key points of focus
  • Striking gender differences in the patterns of recorded crime,
  • Male dominated criminology which neglects female criminality,
  • Causes of male criminality or the relationship between masculinity and crime.
gender patterns in crime
Gender patterns in crime
  • Key topics
  • Chivalry thesis,
  • Evidence against chivalry thesis,
  • Bias against women
have a think
Have a think ?
  • What is recorded crime ?
  • Out of every 10 crimes recorded to police how many involve male offenders?
frances heidensohn 1996
Frances Heidensohn (1996)
  • Gender differences are the most significant feature of recorded crime
  • 4 out of 5 convicted offenders in England and Wales are males,
  • By the age of 40, 9% of females had a criminal conviction against 32% of males,
3 important questions
3 important questions ....
  • Do women actually commit more crime or are the figures an invalid picture of gender patterns of crime?
  • How can we explain why those women who do offend commit crime?
  • Why do males commit more crime than females?
s hoplifting
Shoplifting .....
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLd3-cfLlvU
what do you think
What do you think ?

One of the most common crimes committed by women is shoplifting suggest three reasons for this ?

reasons for female shoplifting
Reasons for female shoplifting:
  • .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
so do women actually commit more crime
So do women actually commit more crime ?

Shoplifting is less likely to be reported

Prostitution is less likely to be reported by the “seller” or the “buyer”

Women are less likely to be prosecuted by the police

what is chivalry
What is Chivalry????

the combination of qualities expected of an ideal knight;courage, honour, justice, and a readiness to help the weak (especially women)

the chivalry thesis
The chivalry thesis
  • Read through each of the cards in pairs arrange them in order.
  • Is it an explanation of the chivalry thesis?
  • Is it evidence against the thesis?
  • What order do the paragraphs go in?
    • This should help you think about the way you structure essays
evidence against the chivalry thesis
Evidence against the chivalry thesis
  • Farrington and Morris (1983) – study of sentencing
  • Buckle and Farrington (1984) – observational study of shoplifting
  • Box (1981) – self report studies

Which of these methods is the best one in order to get reliable data ?

bias against women
Bias against women
  • Read through the bias against women paragraph
bias against women17
Bias against women

Read through the bias against women section in your handbook and write down and mini paragraph which summarises it.

You have 10 minutes to complete this task

explaining female crime
Explaining female crime
  • Key topics
  • Is the criminal justice system more lenient towards women ?
  • Is crime in women due to biological differences or the cause of social differences?
explaining female crime biologically
Explaining female crime - biologically
  • Lombroso & Ferrero (1893)
    • Criminality is innate
    • Less female crime a very few females are ‘born criminal’
  • Recent biological explanations
    • Higher levels of testosterone
explaining female crime20
Explaining female crime
  • Functionalist sex role theory
  • Heidensohn: Patriarchal control
  • Carlen: class and gender
  • The liberation thesis
explaining female crime21
Explaining female crime
  • In pairs use the information in your text book to complete a mind map summary of the theory you are allocated.
  • Use colours and pictures where possible & keep words to a minimum
  • Using the mind maps write a short summary of each theory
what do you think22
What do you think?

What is it about ‘being male’ that leads men to offend?

messerschmidt 1993
Messerschmidt (1993)
  • Masculinity is a social construct, accomplishment
  • Men have to work to constantly work to achieve and assert their masculinity
  • Some men have more resources to draw on to do this than others
  • Hegemonic Vs Subordinate masculinities
hegemonic masculinity
Hegemonic masculinity
  • The dominant prestigious form of masculinity

Paid work

Subordination of women

Heterosexism – desire women

subordinated masculinities
Subordinated masculinities
  • Gay
  • Lower class
  • Ethnic minority
white middle class youths
White middle-class youths
  • Subordinate themselves to teachers in order to achieve middle class status
  • Accommodating masculinity in school
  • Oppositional form outside – drinking, vandalism
white lower class youths
White lowerclass youths
  • Less chance of educational success
  • Their masculinity is opposed in school and out of school
  • Oppose teachers & hold sexes attitudes to construct their masculinity
  • Willis ‘lads’ study
black lower class youths
Black lower class youths
  • Few expectations of a reasonable job
  • Use gang membership and violence to explain their masculinity
  • Turn to property crime to achieve material success
men not just youths commit crime
Men (not just youths) commit crime.....

...to assert their hegemonic masculinity

Middle class – white collar / corporate crime

Working class – street robbery = subordinate masculinity

criticisms of messerschmidt
Criticisms of Messerschmidt
  • He does not explain why all me use crime to accomplish masculinity
  • He over-works (over-uses it) attempting to make it explain many widely different types of male crime
  • His argument is unclear; is masculinity a cause of crime or just a description of male offenders?
homework reminder
Homework - Reminder
  • Methods in context essay – experiments due last Monday
  • Revise for timed MiC essay in Monday’s lesson- Questionnaires
  • Optional Gender & Crime Question
functionalist sex role theory
Functionalist sex role theory
  • Differences in the socialisation of males and females can explain gender differences in crime,
  • Parsons (1955) gender roles in the nuclear family,
  • Cohen (1955)Lack of role models in males can lead to boys joining all male street gangs (subcultural theories),
  • New right sociologist believe that lack of role model leads to males seeking status and identity in gangs
arguments against the sex role theory
Arguments against the sex role theory
  • Walklate (2003): ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  • 2 key feminist theories: Control theory and Liberation Thesis
heidensohn 1985 patriarchal control
Heidensohn (1985) Patriarchal Control
  • Conformist (patriarchal society reduces women’s opportunity to offend):
  • Control at home (restrictions due to domestic duties) – Dobash and Dobash (1979),
  • Control in public (fear of male violence – sexual violence) – Lees (1993),
  • Control at work (women’s behaviour is controlled by males supervisors/managers – sexual harrassment)
carlen 1988 class and gender deals
Carlen (1988) – Class and Gender Deals

Read through Carlen sub section and summarise the concept of class and gender deals including evaluation

freda adler 1975 liberation thesis
Freda Adler (1975) – Liberation thesis
  • Changes in the structure of society has led to changes in offending behaviour,
  • Changes in the crime committed by women due to women increase of self confidence and assertiveness,
  • Denscombe (2001)

Criticism?

  • Female crime has been rising since the 1950’s,
  • Most female criminals are working class,
  • Chesney – Lind (1997) and Laidler and Hunt (2001)
optional essay question
Optional Essay question
  • Compete the last two pages of your handout on masculinity and crime using the “why do men commit crime section of your handout”.
  • Page 109 of your handout complete the 21 marks essay question which I will only take for marking up to Friday 28th of November 2010.
  • Remember it is optional but your best way to practice writing exam questions.