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Chapter 4: Zygote to Newborn. Dr. M. Davis-Brantley. Germinal Period: The First 14 days. Referred to as the first 2 weeks of development after conception Ovum>Egg travels the Fallopian tube>Sperm fertilizes egg>fertilized egg is later implanted in the uterus

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chapter 4 zygote to newborn

Chapter 4: Zygote to Newborn

Dr. M. Davis-Brantley

germinal period the first 14 days
Germinal Period: The First 14 days

Referred to as the first 2 weeks of development after conception

  • Ovum>Egg travels the Fallopian tube>Sperm fertilizes egg>fertilized egg is later implanted in the uterus
  • During these first days while the fertilized egg travels the fallopian tube there is rapid duplication and multiplication
  • By the eight-celled stage, differentiation occurs
    • Meaning early “stem” cells take on distinct characteristics and gravitate toward particular locations (the areas they will later become)
  • The outer cells are to become the placenta their task is to achieve implantation
    • 60% (natural conceptions) & 70% (in vitro conceptions) fail to implant
  • Video—The 1st Month
  • First 14 Days
embryo 3 rd week through 8 th week
Embryo: 3rd week through 8th week
  • Video about the Embryonic Period
  • Video—The Embryo Takes Shape
  • Characterized by the cells becoming a distinct being
    • 4th week: (1/8 inch)
      • head, ears, eyes, nose, mouth
      • blood vessel which will become the heart
      • Cardiovascular system begins to show activity
    • 5th week: Embryo has grown twice in size
      • Buds that will become arms and legs appear and tail-like appendage extends to form a spine
fetus 9 th week until birth
Fetus: 9th week until Birth
  • 3rd month: sex organs begin to take shape
  • End of 3rd month:
    • the fetus has all its body parts
    • Weighs ~3 oz., and is ~3 inches
  • Video--Fetal Stage
  • Video—Feeding the Growing Fetus
fetus 9 th week until birth5
Fetus: 9th week until Birth
  • 2nd Trimester
    • Heartbeat becomes stronger
    • Digestive system develops
    • Excretory system develops
    • Fingernails, toenails, and buds for teeth form
    • Hair grows
  • Brain: significant growth (grown 6 times in size)
      • Undergoing significant neurogenesis (develop new neurons)
      • Undergoing significant synaptogenesis (connections b/n neurons)
  • Age of Viability
    • The age (22 weeks) at which the fetus can survive outside of the mother’s uterus with specialized care
    • Based on fetal brain functioning since the brain regulates the basic body functions
fetus 9 th week until birth6
Fetus: 9th week until Birth
  • 3rd trimester
    • Odds of survival outside of the womb increase significantly each day
    • There is maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
      • Lungs begin to expand and contract
    • Body weight increases rapidly to ensure that the developing brain is well nourished
      • This decreases defects and difficulties in learning in the future
    • Video—3rd Trimester
risk reduction
Risk Reduction
  • Teratogens are agents and conditions that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death
    • Teratogens can include viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors, and malnutrition
  • Behavioral Teratogens are teratogens that can harm the prenatal brain which results in the child having difficulty with learning, hyperactivity, and antisocial behavior
risk reduction8
Risk Reduction
  • Some teratogens cause damage only during specific prenatal periods
  • Critical Period refers to the time when a particular organ or body part is most susceptible to teratogenic damage
  • This is why obstetricians recommend couples get counseling, take multivitamins, stop taking medications before pregnancy
risk reduction9
Risk Reduction
  • Threshold effect—Some teratogens are virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
    • Ex: Prenatal vitamins in excess can cause fetal abnormalities
  • Interaction effect—Condition whereby the risk of a teratogen causing harm increases when one substance intensifies the effects of another teratogen
    • Ex: Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana
risk reduction10
Risk Reduction
  • Genes can determine whether a specific teratogen will be harmful
    • Ex: degree of FAS, birth disorders such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and clubbing
    • Ex: Genes are implicated in the teratogenic effect that results in spina bifida
specific preventable teratogens
Specific/Preventable Teratogens
  • HIV as a teratogen
    • Mothers transmit the virus during pregnancy and through breast feeding
    • Can prevent transmission by
      • Taking antiretroviral drugs beginning 14 weeks
      • Give birth by cesarean section
      • Does not breast feed
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    • A cluster of birth defects caused by mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy
      • Defects include abnormal facial features, slowed physical growth, slowed mental development
    • Damage increases when alcohol is combined with other psychoactive drugs (cigs, cocaine, meth, LSD, psychotropic medications, etc…)
small babies
Small Babies
  • Low birth babies
    • A birthweight of less than 5 ½ pounds
    • Due to the fetus growing too slowly
  • Preterm birth
    • Birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before full term, that is 35 or less weeks
  • Small for gestational age
    • Birthweight significantly lower than expected
    • Typically a sign of serious problems
    • Psychoactive substance use, malnutrition
the birth process
The Birth Process
  • During the final month, fetus typically changes position to prepare for birth proces
    • Short VIDEO and Extended VIDEO
  • Babies that are breech are positioned so that buttocks, feet, or knees first (1 in 20 babies are breech)
  • At 266th day after conception, the fetal brain sends a message to release certain hormones that pass through the mother’s bloodstream
  • This hormone triggers uterine muscles to contract and relax, which begins active labor
  • Babies are born, on average, after 8 hours of active labor and 3 hours for subsequent births
newborn s first minutes
Newborn’s First Minutes
  • Babies typically begin to breathe on their own and take first breaths with spontaneous cries
  • Oxygen is entering for the first time and changes the babies skin color because of circulation
  • Eyes open wide, Finger began to grab, toes stretch and retract
  • Those attending to the child must remove mucus from the throat, umbilical cord must be cut to detach the placenta, baby is wrapped to preserve body heat
newborn s first minutes15
Newborn’s First Minutes
  • Apgar Scale is a means of quickly assessing a newborn’s body functioning
  • The following is checked at birth and again 5 minutes after birth:
    • Baby’s color
    • Heart rate
    • Reflexes
    • Muscle tone
    • Respiratory Effort
  • A total score of 7 or higher indicates no danger
variations in births
Variations in Births
  • Cesarean section is a surgical childbirth where there is an incision through the mother’s abdomen and uterus to allow the fetus to be removed quickly
    • Fewest Cesarean Sections occur in Ghana, Kenya
    • Most take place in Mexico and Brazil
birth complications
Birth Complications
  • Cerebral Palsy
    • A disorder that results from damage to the brain’s motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty with muscle control, which can affect speech or other body movements
    • Believed to be caused by excessive pain medication, slow breech birth, forceps but now discovered it often results from genetic vulnerability and maybe worsened by teratogens
  • Anoxia
    • A temporary lack of oxygen that can cause brain damage or death
after birth and bonding
After Birth and Bonding
  • Parental Alliance
    • Cooperation b/n the mother and father because of their mutual commitment to their children.
    • In a parental alliance, both parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles
  • Postpartum Depression
    • A mother’s feelings of sadness, inadequacy, and hopelessness in the days/weeks after giving birth
    • Feelings are partly due to physiological (especially hormonal) and partly cultural, especially if the woman does not receive adequate assistance and encouragement from the father and helpers
  • Parent-Infant Bond
    • A strong loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn