Innovation Measurement. Keith Smith Imperial College London/TIK Oslo. Why do we need data?. Economy-wide data enables a structural, generalisable view to emerge It allows us to explore the properties of a system as a whole It helps us to identify where the really relevant questions are.
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Imperial College London/TIK Oslo
Historically, 3 sources of data:
Each has more or less serious problems as innovation indicators
But this only indicates R&D performance, it does not reflect use of science, non-R&D inputs, technology flows etc. By this criterion food is a low tech sector, when actually it is strongly science using.