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  1. Articulation of Post-Primary Education and Skills Development:National Qualification Frameworksof South Africa, Namibia and Mauritius byHans Krönner

  2. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  3. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  4. Range of post-primary learning Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  5. Scope of secondary education “Many countries … are faced with the urgent need to expand and reinforce secondary education,including technical and vocational education and training …”UNESCO 33C/5 Draft, Programme I.4 “Supporting post-primary education systems” Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  6. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  7. What is a National QF? • A system of credits forlearning outcomes. • A learning outcome is a capability … reflecting an integration of knowledge and skill which can be understood, applied and transferred to different contexts. • The achievement of a qualification … is not dependent on attendance at particular courses, but by a learner accumulating credit on .. learning outcomes defined by full-time, part-time or distance learning, by work-based learning or … assessment of prior learning. (Samuels 2000) Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  8. Role of NQFs: UNESCO Perspective “Governments should consider establishing a system of equivalencies whereby credit is given for completion of any approved programme, and recognition is granted to educational and/or professional qualifications and work experience…”UNESCO Revised Recommendation on TVE (2001) para 15 Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  9. Role of NQFs: ILO Perspective “Members should … develop a NQF to facilitate lifelong learning, … guide individuals in their choice of training and career and facilitate the recognition of prior learning andpreviously acquired skills,competencies and experience …”ILO Recommendation 195 Concerning Human Resources Development: Education, Training and Lifelong Learning (2004), para 5 Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  10. National QF: An instrument for the development and classification of qualifications according to a set of criteria for levels of learning achieved.(OECD definition) Regional QF: A meta-framework that enables users to see how qualifications embedded in different national systems relate to one another.(European Communities) National versus Regional QFs Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  11. Regional Framework relating NQFs Source: Commission of the European Communities, SEC(2005)957, 08.07.2005 Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  12. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  13. Rationale for Qualification Frameworks • The challenge for secondary education: • Diversification of content • Adaptation of content to local needs • Diversification of learning patterns • But at the same time: • Articulation • Vertical and horizontal progression of learners • Coherent system for assessment and certification of learning achievements Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  14. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  15. Democratic Republic of United the Congo Republic of Tanzania Malawi Angola Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe Namibia Botswana Mauritius Swaziland South Lesotho Africa The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  16. Progress in NQF Development Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  17. NQF Structure: South Africa Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  18. NQF Structure: Mauritius Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  19. NQF Structure: Namibia Diplomas NQF Level Certificates Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  20. NQF Level Descriptors: Namibia Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  21. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  22. Scope: Education and Training (1) Types of relationship within NQF: • Unified:All systems are integrated • Linked:Separate systems,but with common structures for transferability • Tracked:Separate systems with limited transferability Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  23. Scope: Education and Training (2) • South Africa:Highly unified scope, bridging “theory” (general education) and “application” (vocational education and training). • Namibia:Comprehensive QF covering education and training;bridges between academic education and vocational training. • Mauritius:Covering general academic as well as TVET;however, concentration on harmonizing various patterns of vocational training. Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  24. Overview • Scope of post-primary education • What are Qualifications Frameworks? • Why are QFs being developed? • NQFs in the SADC region • The scope of NQFs in SADC • Conclusions for secondary education? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  25. Conclusions ? What is the messagethat NQF experiencein SADC conveysfor the scope and designof secondary educationin your country? Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region

  26. Acknowledgements Materials used in this presentation are based on a paper by Jakes Swartland, with contributions from: • Mauritius Qualifications Authority • Namibia Qualifications Authority • South African Qualifications Authority Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA):National Qualification Frameworks in the SADC Region