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Roll Out of LTE Progress & Challenges . By DR T.H. CHOWDARY Director: Center for Telecom Management and Studies Fellow: Tata Consultancy Services Chairman: Pragna Bharati (intellect India ) Former: Chairman & Managing Director Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited &

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roll out of lte progress challenges

Roll Out of LTEProgress & Challenges



Director: Center for Telecom Management and Studies

Fellow: Tata Consultancy Services

Chairman: PragnaBharati (intellect India )

Former: Chairman & Managing Director

Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited &

Information Technology Advisor,

Government of Andhra Pradesh

T: +91(40) 6667-1191(O) 2784-3121®

F: +91 (40) 6667-1111

Keynote address @ IETE : 11th Sept 2012

man in search of speed
Man in Search of Speed
  • Running ( Marathon)
  • Horse
  • Bicycle
  • Steam/ diesel /electric locomotives on rails
  • Automobiles on roads
  • Aeropelanes in the sky
  • Rockets into space

S673 _Sept'12

information transport
Information Transport
  • Post Office
  • Telegraph/Telex
  • Telephone
  • Radio
  • TV
  • Internet
  • Mobile phones
  • Communications Satellites
  • Optical Fiber
  • Digitization, Packet switching , Routers, Compression, Encryption

S673 _Sept'12

mobile penetration in the last decade
Mobile Penetration in the Last Decade

Per 100 Inhabitants

Source: Voice & Data, Sept 2011 and IT U World Telecoms/ KT Indicators Database * Estimates

S673 _Sept'12

information traffic grows exponentially
Information traffic grows exponentially
  • Globally the number of mobile internet users will surpass desktop users by 2015
  • Smart phones, social networking,

video on demand, video streaming, e-education, e-books, mobile video conferencing

  • BOYD (bring your own device)
  • Push up information storage & transport

S673 _Sept'12

generations of mobile systems
Generations of mobile systems
  • 1G, 2G,3G, 4G and LTE (long term evolution)
  • Digitisation
  • Computer Switching ( Routers), MPLS ( multi protocol label switching )
  • Modems (analogue – 4kbps, 16 kbps)
  • BB (Broadband), 64 k, 256k, 2MBPS, 8 MBPS, 100MBPS ,(N GBPS)

S673 _Sept'12

limited spectrum for mobile broadband
Limited Spectrum for Mobile Broadband

1 MHz 10 MHz 100 MHz 1 GHz 10GHz

75 meters 7.5 meters 0.75 meters 7.5 cm 75mm

S673 _Sept'12

lte deployment
LTE deployment
  • Mid 2009 TeliaSonera in Norway and Sweden
  • Sept 2010 Metro PCS –USA
  • Dec 2010 Verizon –USA
  • Nov 2010 Hong Kong: CSL
  • Dec 2010 DoCoMo –Japan
  • APril2011-SMART Philippine
  • July 2011- SK Telecom -Korea, Telestra- Australia, SingTel-Singapore
  • 3 Jan 12-South Korea -KT
  • Jan 2012- 40 Networks in operation in 29 countries
  • 229 commitments for deployment in 79 countries
  • India augure in1 4 cities in MP and Chattisgarh in Q1-12
  • Currently there are 197 LTE enabled devices from 48 manufacturers
  • MTNL in Delhi & Mumbai in Q1-2011 (MTNL & BSNL allotted 3G spectrum even before auction but they required to pay what the auction determined)

S673 _Sept'12

tower requirements
Tower Requirements
  • India ‘s population density – 150 (Andaman); Delhi -1800 per sq. mile
  • 1000 subscribers per tower
  • One tower for 6 sq.miles to 18 towers per sq.mile
  • MBPS per tower for 2G-40; for 4G-800
  • India has 4,50,000 towers
  • Tenancy ratio required :2 to 3 per tower
  • To reduce radiation to less than 1 wt per sq. mtr we need at least 25,000 more towers at a cost of Rs. 7,500 cr.
  • Local bodies and property owners are becoming hungry wolves and clearances are costing huge monies

S673 _Sept'12

back haul
Back -haul
  • 1.5 to 2 GBPS from each tower
  • Terrestrial microwave is less expensive than Optical Fiber systems (digging and resurfacing costs are a source of unearned income for local bodies and highways)
  • Both TDM and IP traffic require back-haul
  • Encapsulation : Ethernet is cheaper than MPLS which is superior

S673 _Sept'12

broadband wireless access bwa 1
Broadband wireless access (BWA) (1)
  • The spectrum auction in June 2010 netted $ 8.4 bln (Rs. 40,000 Cr) (the 3G netted Rs. 68000 Cr)
  • Target for broadband subscribers by 2014 – 100 mln
  • Only Reliance Infotel has nation wide licence

(cost $ 2.74 bln )

  • Aircel has a spectrum in 8 circles, Airtel and Qualcomm in 4 circles each; BSNL all over India
  • LTE ready equipment vendors - Nokia Siemens networks, Huawei, Alcatel Lucent & ZTE
  • WiMax is also LTE technology and some a re deploying it.

S673 _Sept'12

broadband wireless access bwa 2
Broadband wireless access (BWA) (2)
  • 132 operators in 56 countries are now investing in LTE
  • 45 networks are in operation now
  • Reliance uses LTE-TTD (time division duplex)
  • Qualcom (which ha s licence in 4 circles) supplies equipment to every operator

promotes TD-LTE in competition with WiMax

  • Qualcom has multi mode chip sets which enable equal footing for services in 2G, 3G and BWA
  • Aircel demonstrated high definition video streaming and three way video conferencing using inter-operable TD-LTE dongles
  • Speed 110 mbps and low latency of 10-20 milli sec .

S673 _Sept'12

monies raised through spectrum auction
Monies raised through spectrum auction
  • 3G – Rs. 68,000 Cr
  • Broadband – Rs. 40,000 Cr
  • Reliance Infotel (Mukhesh group) – 4G

Spectrum in June 2010 @ Rs. 4,800 Cr

Investment to be made Rs. 27,500 Cr

  • Content creation : 15% to creator; 15% to aggregator; 70% to Telcos but Reliance Infotel will pass on 50% to Telcos and aggregator
  • Content- video on demand, live video, mobile video conferencing, e-education(bought online tutoring company extra marks education pvt.) , network 18 TV content, triple play ( voice, entertainment and education)
  • Technology used: (TDD)- time division duplex-

LTE will provide voice service through applications like Skype and Viber

S673 _Sept'12

auctioning spectrum is disastrous
Auctioning Spectrum is disastrous
  • Gamblers instinct
  • First mobile service licences were auctioned
  • Fantastic “upfront paid “ bids led to near death of Telcos
  • Telcso migrated to revenues share in 1999
  • Right thing to do - invite bids for revenue share and not for spectrum price
  • DOT/government has stake in Telcos wellbeing
  • DOT/gov take equity in Telcos to control
  • Money made is squandered on

“Feed and breed” welfare programs

  • About 30% of what users pay and tax on profits go to government
  • Telecom R&D, and indigenous manufacturing languishing
  • Defense, security , infrastructure are starved

S673 _Sept'12

should spectrum be priced
Should Spectrum be Priced?
  • Like air it is an inexhaustible resource , which can be used again and again all the while

Infrared, ultra violet, x-ray…..

  • Solar power
  • Sun’s light rays spectrum is not sold
  • The product that is electricity is sold
  • Devices convert sunlight to electricity are sold and taxed . So only products and services derived from spectrum should be sold .
  • Take Nitrogen from air and produce fertilizer

what do you sell /tax?

S673 _Sept'12

industry woes 1
Industry Woes (1)
  • Telco Revenues @ Rs. 1.5/2 Tln.
  • Telco Investments of = Rs. 3 Tln
  • Telcos debt Rs.3 Tln
  • Debt of Telcos to Banks Rs. 1,00,000cr

(R-Com = Rs. 35,000 cr)

  • Profits are declining
  • ARPUs lowest in the world
  • Hyper competition
    • Services customers
    • Sickness for companies
  • DOT/TRAI-function?
  • Raising Revenues for government or
  • Reaching service uptoaamadmi
  • Return on capital employed <6.5%

S673 _Sept'12

industry woes 2
Industry Woes (2)
  • No company has declared a dividend in the last 18 years
  • Share prices’ performance below BSE index
  • Banks not enthused to finance 2G spectrum purchases.
  • A Kotak Investment Study finds need for “Viability Gap Funding” by government ?

S673 _Sept'12

perverse views of dot trai
Perverse views of DOT/TRAI
  • Asking internet service providers (ISPs) for revenue share.
  • Asking tower companies to pay revenue share and take a licence
  • Asking cell companies to pay spectrum charge determined by 2012 2G auctions for the remaining period of the licence of P-telcos 2014/15 . (Electricity transmission towers and distribution poles do not require a licence nor do they pay anything to any body.)
  • Withholding VOIP for the last 10 years an d now saying OK
  • Not allowing 3 G roaming between different company networks (no single company got 3Glicence for the entire country – Airtel- 13; Idea-11; Vodafone-9; BSNL-everywhere )
  • Suggesting reforming of 2 G networks

from 800 MHZ to 800/900 MHZ bands

S673 _Sept'12

thank you dhanyawad
Thank You:Dhanyawad

S673 _Sept'12