Overthrow of Manchu Dynasty (1644-1911) • 1911 Manchu Dynasty • Sun Yat-sen becomes president • Hopes to establish govt. based on the three principles of the people. 1. Nationalism 2. Democracy 3. People’s Livelihood Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
Era of the Warlords (1916-1926) • Local concentrations of power emerge • military leaders & local gentry take control of the provinces. • Warlord armies terrorize the countryside. • Millions of peasants die of famine & disease. • Peasants’ desire for land went unresolved; landless grew
World War I--Asia Japan: • Seeking a foothold in China • 1917-China aides allies vs.Germany • 1919 Treaty of Versailles: • Japan gains territory & privileges previously belonging to Germany in China. • Result: May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 • students protest in Peking. • slogan: ‘Down with the Imperialists’ • becomes a nationalist movement: 1. Spreads to other cities 2. Nationalism & anti-imperialist sentiment grow.
May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 Outcome: • Create broad based coalition. • Force release of imprisoned students • dismissal of Japanese officials from govt. • reformers turn against Sun Yat-sen’s belief in western democracy.
Rise of Marxism & Formation of the CCP Marxism: • Seen as a method to vitalize Chinese peasantry. • Gains acceptance in wake of industrialization. • Capitalism seen as cause of foreign exploitation & aggression. • 1921—CCP formed Mao Tse-tung
KMT and CCP Alliance • Sun Yat-sen organizes the KMT along Bolsheviks lines • 1923—Lenin sends military advisors & equipment in return for allowing the CCP to join forces with the KMT.
Break-up of KMT and CCP • 1925 • Chiang Kai-shek emerges as KMT leader • KMT & CCP forces successfully defeat the Warlords. • 1927—Chiang fears CCP and its leaders. • KMT troops overrun Shanghai • Execute CCP leaders & union members. • “Purges” spread to other cities. • Surviving CCP leaders go into hiding. Chiang Kai-shek
Nationalist Republic of China (1928-37) • Chiang Kai-shek becomes President. • U.S. & Britain recognizes KMT government • Government becomes dictatorial and corrupt. • Focuses on modernizing & developing cities. • Ignores the peasants—life does not improve
Mao Tse-tung and the Peasants • Recognizes potential. • Organizing soviets to train peasants • Divides CCP land amongst peasants • Wins their loyalty
Civil War--1930 • Red Army is a Well trained guerilla army. • 1933—700,000 KMT soldiers surround CCP’s stronghold. • CCP outnumbered 6 to 1. • 1934--CCP forces flee for their lives.
WW II begins in ASIA • 1937 Japan launches all out invasion of China. • Japanese threat forces a KMT & CCP truce. • CCP under Mao mobilize peasants for guerilla war against Japan
Chiang Kai-shek with FDR & Winston Churchill • 1942-45 Chiang Kai-shek gathers 2.5 million soldiers • Received 1.5 billion in U.S. money & equipment to fight Japan. • Japan defeated in 1945. • 1945—CCP controls No. China & KMT Controls So. China.
Civil War 1946-49 • KMT outnumbers CCP • Chiang receives 2.5 billion more in U.S. aid • KMT can’t muster popular support • China’s economy collapses • Thousands of KMT soldiers desert
Mao Zedong Proclaiming the • 1949 Mao’s Red Army takes over China’s Major Cities. • Mao gains control of the country • Chiang Kai-shek & KMT leaders flee to Taiwan People’s Republic of China
Credits Beck, Roger B. et al. Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. Boston: McDougal Littell. 1999. Craig, Albert M. et al. The Heritage of Western Civilizations New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 2000. No Author Given. Chinese Photo Gallery. http://www.chinese-gifts.com.hk/index.htm No Author Given. China. Compton’s Encyclopedia Online http://www.comptons.com/encyclopedia/ARTICLES/0025/00397568_A.html