protons neutrons nucleus electrons orbit at various distances from nucleus n.
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Protons + Neutrons = Nucleus Electrons “orbit” at various distances from nucleus. Electron configuration [2,8,8]. All material objects are made of atoms An atom is mostly empty space Nucleus contains protons (+) and neutrons (0) strongly held together

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protons neutrons nucleus electrons orbit at various distances from nucleus
Protons + Neutrons = Nucleus

Electrons “orbit” at various distances from nucleus

slide3

All material objects are made of atoms

  • An atom is mostlyempty space
  • Nucleus contains protons (+) and neutrons (0) stronglyheld together
  • Electrons (-) are weaklybound to the nucleus and can be easily removed
check yourself
Check yourself.

____ are the charged parts of an atom.

  • Only electrons
  • Only protons

c. Neutrons only

d. Electrons and neutrons

e. Electrons and protons

f. Protons and neutrons

charged vs uncharged particles
Charged vs. Uncharged Particles

Charged objects have an unequal number of protons and electrons.

The SI unit for charge is the Coulomb, C

1 electron = -1.6 x 10-19 C

1 proton = +1.6 x 10-19 C

slide9

Identify the following particles as being charged or uncharged. If charged, indicate whether they are charged positively or negatively. (n = neutron, p = proton, e = electron)

slide10

The amount of charge carried by a lightning bolt is estimated at 10 Coulombs. What quantity of excess electrons is carried by the lightning bolt?

slide11

The amount of charge carried by a lightning bolt is estimated at 10 Coulombs. What quantity of excess electrons is carried by the lightning bolt?

Answer: 6.25 x 1019 electrons

Multiply the charge in Coulombs (10 C) by the conversion factor: (1 electron) / (1.6 x 10-19 C). The units of C cancel; the answer is in electrons.

slide16

Conductorsare materials that permit electrons to flow freely from atom to atom and molecule to molecule.

  • insulatorsare materials that impede the free flow of electrons from atom to atom and molecule to molecule.