industrialization and urbanization in america
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Industrialization and Urbanization in America. Objectives. USH.2.1 Identify the factors necessary for industrialization USH.2.1 Describe economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power.

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  • USH.2.1 Identify the factors necessary for industrialization
  • USH.2.1 Describe economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power.
  • USH.2.2 Identify key ideas, movements, and inventions and explain their impact on rural communities and urban communities in the United States
  • USH 2.3-2.7; and many more


  • The process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one.
  • Developed country means an industrialized country
  • Developing country means a traditional country; trying to change to an industrialized country
  • Fundamental changes:
    • Daily lives are change: family, work, etc.
    • Politics change
  • “Gilded Age”
  • 4 main changes/factors:
    • Technology
    • Innovation
    • Resources
    • Organization
  • Not every American was happy with the change
  • Every aspect of American culture and politics were changed
  • Moving from rural to urban
  • Farm living to city living
gilded age social thought
Gilded Age: Social Thought
  • Social Darwinism:
    • Herbert Spenser:
      • “survival of the fittest”
      • Do not intervene with poverty
    • William Graham Sumner:
      • Applied Social Darwinism
      • Wrote: “What the Social Classes owe to Each other” (1883)
        • He says they owe nothing to each other
gilded age social thought1
Gilded Age: Social Thought
  • Social Darwinism
    • Andrew Carnegie:
      • Came from poor Scottish to America
      • Wrote “Gospel of Wealth”
      • Owned 2/3 of steel (named U.S. Steel)
      • Gave $350 million away
      • Built many libraries for children
    • Horatio Alger:
      • Books on how to change from poverty to rich successful people
      • “From Farm Boy to Senator”
      • “Ragged Dick”
andrew carnegie
Andrew Carnegie

U.S. Steel Company Owner

gilded age social thought2
Gilded Age: Social Thought
  • Protestant Work Ethic
    • Hard working is morally good
    • Wealth is morally good
    • Poverty is morally wrong
    • Everything determined by you
gilded age innovations and inventions
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions
  • Elisha Otis
    • Safety Elevator (1852)
  • Alexander Graham Bell
    • Telephone (1876)
  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931)
    • Electricity-light bulb (1880)
  • Granville Woods
    • African American inventor
    • Steam Boiler Furnace (1884)
gilded age innovations and inventions1
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions
  • Guglielmo Marconi
    • Wireless telegraph (1896)
  • 1850s: English Henry Bessemer
    • Developed Bessemer Process:
      • Process of purifying iron, resulting in strong, but lightweight steel
    • America quickly adopts the process
    • 1890-U.S. outproducing Great Britain with steel manufacturing.
gilded age innovations and inventions2
Gilded Age: Innovations and Inventions
  • Suspension Bridges created from the creation of steel
    • Brooklyn Bridge (1883 completed)
      • 1st suspension bridge suspended by steel cables
  • Transportation innovations
    • George Westinghouse created air brakes for trains in 1869
    • Gustavus Swift developed refrigerated cars for carrying food on trains in 1887
    • 1883-three transcontinental railroad lines were created
gilded age politics
Gilded Age: Politics
  • Gilded Age Presidents
    • Rutherford B. Hayes:
      • Put down a railroad strike in 1877 by killing 70 workers with the federal army
    • James Garfield
      • July 2-shot in arm
      • Sept.-died from infection
      • Handed out many jobs
    • Chester Arthur
      • Fair to both political parties
gilded age politics1
Gilded Age: Politics
  • Gilded Age Presidents
    • Grover Cleveland
      • Vetoed almost everything that came across his desk
    • Benjamin Harrison
      • Cheated the election
      • Lost popular vote but won electorial vote-2nd to occur
    • Grover Cleveland
      • Only President to run two separate terms
      • Blamed for the 1893 Depression
      • Labor Party was his biggest supporter (Populist)
president benjamin harrison
President Benjamin Harrison

William Henry Harrison’s son

gilded age politics2
Gilded Age: Politics
  • Congress
    • Created Veterans Benefits
      • 1st time vets received benefits
      • Given to only white and black union vets
    • Tariffs:
      • Tax imports
      • Protect American industry
gilded age meat packing
Gilded Age: Meat Packing
  • Meat packed with much harmful additives inside package
  • Upton Sinclair: The Jungle
    • Spoke on meat packing
    • Conditions of the work
  • Meat was dropped on the floor, sneezed on, coughed on, and still went through
  • Pg 220
gilded age daily life
Gilded Age: Daily life
  • Urban places overcrowded
  • Most families live with more than one family in a tenements
  • 1879: windows had to be in every room
  • Trash was thrown out of the window in the street
  • Work 12, 14, or even 16 hrs. a day
  • Apartments (tenements) had no plumbing and no sewage
  • Water shortage
gilded age workers hardships
Gilded Age: Workers Hardships
  • Factory work became a very popular way to earn money
  • Sweatshops are factories that are hot, dark, and dirty workhouses with workers working 12 hr shifts.
  • Factory work was very dangerous and locked in
  • No OSHA
  • Workers were killed regularly
  • Workers had very few breaks
gilded age labor unions formed
Gilded Age: Labor Unions Formed
  • Knights of Labor founded 1869 by Uriah Stephens
    • Recruited African Americans regularly
    • 1881: Terence V. Powderly became leader of the Knights
      • Said that everyone are welcome except Chinese
    • They oppose wage labor
  • American Federal of Labor (AFL) founded 1886 by Samuel Gompers
    • Only let skilled workers in
    • They had strikes, but no political reforms
immigration push pull
Immigration: Push-Pull
  • Push Factors:
    • Religious persecution for Russians and Eastern European Jews
    • Wanted to have a new start
    • Land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land in Mexico, Poland, and China
  • Pull Factors:
    • Plentiful land offered
    • Jobs needed
    • Political Freedom
immigration who they were
Immigration: Who they were?
  • East Coast:
    • Ellis Island
    • Before 1880: European immigrants that could assimilate into American culture easily
      • Germans
      • Scandinavians
      • Irish
    • After 1880: European immigrants having a harder time assimilating mostly because they were poverty
      • Jews, Slaves (Polish, Bulgarians, etc), and Italians
immigration who they were1
Immigration: Who they were?
  • West Coast
    • Angel Island
    • All come after 1880
      • Chinese
      • Mexicans
      • Japanese
      • Etc.
    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882-1943 told them no more Chinese come into America
    • Most of the Chinese workers worked on the transcontinental railroad
immigration social legal whiteness
Immigration: Social/legal Whiteness
  • European Immigrants:
    • Irish were considered the European Blacks
    • Italians were lynched and killed
      • New Orleans (1891)
    • Jews were never really liked by anyone
      • Leo Frank (1913)
immigration social legal whiteness1
Immigration: Social/legal Whiteness
  • Asian Immigrants:
    • Chinese were told by the Supreme Court that they were not of the Caucasian race
      • In re ah Yup 1876
    • Indians thought that they were of the right race and was told no
      • U.S. vs. Bhagat Singh Thind 1923
    • Japanese believed they were of the Caucasian race and did not gain citizenship
      • Owaza vs. U.S. 1922
popular entertainment
Popular Entertainment
  • Amusement Parks
  • Outdoor activities
  • Musical dramas
  • Movie theaters
  • Sports: Baseball, horse racing, bike racing, boxing, football, etc.
populism populist party
Populism: Populist Party
  • Rose out of a falling economy (deflation)
    • Ex: corn falls 43%
    • Wheat falls 50%
  • Farmers organize
    • The Grange (1867) by Oliver H. Kelley
      • “Patron of Husbandry”
      • Created by people who raise livestock and agriculture
populism populist party1
Populism: Populist Party
  • Farmers organize
    • Farmer's Alliances (1876) started in Texas
      • Active in 48 states when started
      • Wanted to get the government to work with them
    • Populist Party (1892): “People's Party”
      • Wanted to build a new federal government from the ground up
      • Omaha Platform: adopted views in July 1892
        • Unlimited coinage of silver
        • Graduated income tax
        • Government ownership of railroad and telegraph companies
        • Bank regulations
populism election of 1896
Populism: Election of 1896
  • William McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan
  • Populist party gave Bryan their support
  • “Cross of Gold” speech
    • “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify man upon a cross of gold.”
  • Bryan went all out on election: first tour of the nation as a presidential candidate, speak directly to people, and many other things.
  • William McKinley won election with 271 electoral votes while Bryan had only 176