Definition of Project Scope Project Scope is – • the work that must be performed to deliver a product, service or result as per the specifications or requirements • concerned with what is included in the project and what is excluded from the project • determined at a high level during the project initiation phase and expanded in the planning phase • generally determined by the Project Sponsor, expanded by the Project Manager and then reconfirmed with the Project Sponsor • defined by the boundaries or range for the project including constraints, assumptions and dependencies • related to the objectives, outcomes, requirements Adapated from PMBOK 4th Edition
What is a Project Sponsor? • The Project Sponsor is critical during the development of project scope and has a key role to play during project execution. • They are the person for whom the project is being undertaken and they will directly benefit from the deliverables and outcomes of the project. • The Project Manager needs to ensure that the Project Sponsor has approved the Project Scope so that there are no misunderstandings about the breadth and outcomes of the project. • The Project Sponsor is often a senior manager, customer or external client.
Importance of Project Scope Why is it important? • Gives the Project Manager concrete goals • Ensures the objectives of the Project Sponsor are met • Provides the basis for expectation management, monitoring and reporting • Determines the baseline against which project success can be measured
Characteristics of Project Scope • Poor control over project scope is one of the common reasons for project failure • Projects that never seem to finish are normally suffering from a failure to control scope • Project scope is defined at a high level during the early stages of the project and then progressively refined Assumptions often required High level becoming detailed Measures project success Refined during the project Constraints will be applied Changes need to be monitored
Scope Time Cost Quality Project Scope Interrelationships • Scope is related to Project Time, Project Cost and project Quality • Sometimes referred to as the ‘triple constraint’ • Scope expansion and contraction has flow on impacts to Time, Cost and Quality • Trade offs between all four relationships are possible
Project Scope Interrelationships Increased Cost Time Fixed leads to and/or Scope Increases when Additional Resources • If the project scope is increased when the project timeframe must remain fixed then normally the overall cost will need to increase as more resources are added in order to complete the additional work
Project Scope Interrelationships Extra Time Cost Fixed Scope Increases when leads to and/or Reduced Quality • If the project scope is increased and the project cost must remain fixed then normally the overall timeframe will need to be extended to allow extra time for the additional work to be undertaken (this assumes that there is no cost involved in extending the resources for a longer period). It may also be possible to compromise on quality in order to speed up execution so that no additional time is required, thereby reducing pressure on the budget.
Project Scope Interrelationships Reduced Time Scope Decreases lead to and/or Reduced Cost • When scope is decreased then it may be possible to reduce both the project cost and timeframe. Scope reduction is a common reaction to overall budget cuts within an organisation.
Project Scope Management Processes PMBOK Project Scope Management Processes - 5.1 Collect Requirements 5.2 Define Scope 5.3 Create Work Breakdown Structure 5.4 Verify Scope 5.5 Control Scope Related processes from Project Integration Management – 4.1 Develop Project Charter 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control PMBOK 4th Edition